Erik Erickson & Horney

Flashcards by rachael.mitterfe, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by rachael.mitterfe about 8 years ago


Flashcards on Erik Erickson & Horney, created by rachael.mitterfe on 06/04/2013.

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Erickson, in a nutshell, believed that at each stage of life we are faced with a specific crisis/psychosocial dilemma. The resolution of each dilemma creates a new balance between the person and their social world. Early unfavourable outcomes can throw things out of balance and affect the dealing with later crises. Sequential "successes" in each 'developmental milestone' develop a healthy personality & satisfying life. The outcome of one stage is not necessarily permanent, but can be altered by performance in other stages. Erickson believed that both innate and environmental factors came into play in the development of personality.
Karen Horney was also a Neo (new)-Freudian. Horney rejected Freud's mechanistic, biological, instinctive approach to personality. Horney maintained that neurosis was not caused by anxiety but rather, basic anxiety stemmed from feeling isolated & helpless in a hostile world (Social dimension). Horney also posited that this process began in childhood, along with our ability to move toward (friendship), or move away from others (withdrawal, independence), or even against others (competition, seeking power). Horney believed emotional well-being to reflect a balance of moving toward, away from & against others. There is a tendency to become locked into overuse of one of these modes.
Horney was more focused on social aspects and motivations of personality. He didn't agree with Freuds views concerning women (believed that womens feelings of inferiority stemmed from social factors, e.g. the emphassis on securing the love of a man. Women want masculine autonomy & control), penis envy and neurosis. Horney posited that childrens most significant discovering was that of his/her own helplessness. He emphasised the importance of individual self-realisation and growth, as well as a warm, stable family and larger society and culture. Horney explored basic anxiety: A child's fear of being alone, helpless and insecure. How people are driven by the unconscious. People adapt to the world in an agressive, passive or withdrawn style.
Neo-Psychoanalytical: Erikson Erikson developed his own theory about personality development from a lifespan perspective, in which he refered to a series of psychosocial stages. He differed from Psychoanalytical Theory by focusing less on pschosexual stages, more on conscious thought and interpersonal relations. Unlike Freud's stages which ended early, Erikson's stages continued througout life. He focused on Identity Crisis (sense of self) & male-female differences in Personality. Infancy-Trust vs. Mistrust (hope) Toddler-Autonomy vs. Doubt (will) Early Childhood-Initiative vs. Guilt (purpose) School age-Industry vs.Inferiority (competence) Adolescence -Identity vs. Role confusion (Fidelity) Young Adulthood-Intamacy vs. Isolation (love) Adulthood- Generavity vs. Stagnation (care) Old Age-Ego Integrity vs. Despair (wisdom) Trouble with any of the stages could potentially impact on the rest of an individuals life.
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