Language Change Terms

Hazel Meades
Flashcards by Hazel Meades, updated more than 1 year ago
Hazel Meades
Created by Hazel Meades over 6 years ago
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Description

A Levels English Language (Language Change) Flashcards on Language Change Terms, created by Hazel Meades on 09/09/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Inflection Affix told you what the grammatical function/place of the word in a sentence was.
Borrowings/loan words Words that we've added to our lexicon from other countries.
Broadening Words broaden in meaning.
Final e Adding an extra e onto the word e.g: lorde, refreshe
Narrowing When a word narrows in meaning for example: mete (meaning food) becomes meat.
Virgule The use of slashes. They separate the text into chunks acting in a similar (but not very conventional) way to full stops.
Neoclassicism Going back to classical ideas. This is particularly apparent in the renaissance period where Latin and Greek elements became influential.
Paleologism An old word dug up and used again.
Elevated diction Making things complex and grammatically difficult in order to make yourself sound intellectual. This was particularly apparent in the renaissance period.
Inkhorn term Any foreign borrowing deemed to be unnecessary or overly pretentious, usually from Latin. This was recognised during the renaissance and was an example of prescriptive vs descriptive debate.
Grammatical conversion E.g: noun changes to a verb, such as spoon, due to use of item over time.
Prescriptive Belief in a correct standard form of language.
Descriptive You observe and account for changes but accept that they are inevitable and embrace them.
Sapir Whorf hypothesis Language = thought
Lexicographer Person who makes dictionaries.
Codification The last stage of a neologism before it enters the language. This is the moment that it's officially written down and used.
Brand names/eponyms New words from proper nouns e.g: hoover, biro, thermos
Compounding Formation of new words from free morphemes e.g: airmail, graveyard, paperback
Blends Two words squished together, omitting some of the letters in them individually so they wouldn't make sense alone e.g: chortle, smog, spritten (spoken and written), motel
Shortenings E.g: cab, pub, plane, bra, perm
Back formations Words invented from an existing word, where the verb is often created from the noun e.g: enthuse (from enthusiasm), liase (from liason), televise (from television
Reduplicatives Often created and used informally. They copy the word but change it slightly e.g: goody-goody, walkie-talkie
Affixation Adding a standard prefix or suffix e.g: unforgiving, unfunny, cannbalise etc.
Nonce word Word only used temporarily when there is a need for it. It isn't coined or taken on by the language.
Eye-dialect The way you'd write an accent to force someone to pronounce it
Pidgin language Linguistically simplistic. Not a mother tongue - a slang language. As it widens across tribes it becomes Creole and can appear unintelligible to outsiders.
Political correctness Language that avoids offence and prejudice. It aims to increase the power, value and credibility of the individual.
Taboo language Language that is deemed to be socially unacceptable within a certain context.
Truncation Shortening words e.g: n-word.
Adaptation E.g: sheesh, frik, shitake mushrooms
Substitution Euphemisms e.g: it's my time of the month
Grawlixes E.g: f*@k
Slang Lexical innovation within a particular cultural context.
Codeswitching Our ability to switch from register to another seamlessly.
Accomodation Adapting to the audience.
Omission Clipping of a consonant from a word.
Assimilation The pronunciation of one phoneme is change by an adjacent phoneme e.g: donchu.
Non-standard L vocalisation Pronouncing the l-sound in certain positions almost like /w/ so milk bottle becomes miwk bottoo and football = foobaw. The l sounds that are affected are those that are dark in classical RP and are followed by another consonant.
Glotalling Using a glottal stop instead of a /t/ in certain positions. This isn't the same as omitting /t/ altogether since plate sounds different from play. Authors often show it through spelling e.g: take i' off.
Weak vowels Aitchison saw that people often say erstronomy or merstake.
Uptalk A rising intonation even when something isn't a question.
HappY-tensing Making an ee sound from y e.g: Saturdee.
Yod coalescence Using a ch sound instead of tu e.g: Tuesday --> chuesday.
Americanisation Not just lexical. Changing the stress in words e.g: controversy.
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