Beginnings of language development

megan langdon
Mind Map by megan langdon, updated more than 1 year ago
megan langdon
Created by megan langdon almost 6 years ago
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Description

Child Language Acquisition Mind Map

Resource summary

Beginnings of language development
  1. Stages of development
    1. Children don't all develop at same pace
      1. Children all around world DO pass through same sets of stages
        1. Universal pattern of development, regardless of lang being acquired
      2. Before birth
        1. Evidence suggests even in womb, growing baby listens (acclimatises) to sounds of native lang
          1. Mehler (1988)
            1. Fr new born babies able to distinguish Fr from other langs
          2. Crying
            1. First few weeks - child expresses itself vocally through crying
              1. Singles hunger, distress / pleasure
              2. Instinctive noise (so not lang)
              3. Cooing
                1. A.K.A gurgling / mewing
                  1. 6 - 8 weeks old
                    1. 'Coo', 'gaga' & 'goo'
                      1. Child develops increasing control over vocal chords
                      2. Babbling
                        1. Most important stage in 1st year
                          1. 6 - 9 months old
                            1. Sounds begin to resemble adult sounds more closely
                              1. Bilabial (lips) sounds most common
                                1. Using lips to make sounds
                                2. When these sounds repeated = reduplicated monosyllable
                                  1. Sounds have NO MEANING
                                    1. Baby makes far more noise than before
                                      1. Exercises & experiments w/ its articulators
                                        1. Parts of body that makes them sounds
                                        2. Phonemic expansion
                                          1. ab - cab, tab, gab, lab
                                            1. Repition
                                              1. Phoneme - smallest element of sound in lang
                                                1. Can display contrast & hence change meaning or function of word
                                                2. During babbling, no of diff phonemes produced expands
                                              2. Phonemic contraction
                                                1. 9 - 10 Months
                                                  1. No of phonemes produced reduces to those found in native land (contracts)
                                                    1. Baby discards sounds not required
                                                      1. Evidence
                                                        1. Noises made by children of diff nationalities start to sound diff
                                                        2. Experiments
                                                          1. Native adults have successfully identified babies from own countries
                                                        3. Intonation
                                                          1. 9 - 10 months
                                                            1. Intonation patterns begin to resemble speech
                                                              1. Common - rising intonation at end of utterance
                                                                1. Other variations in rhythm / emphasis may suggest greeting / calling
                                                                2. Gesture
                                                                  1. 9 - 10 months
                                                                    1. Although they don't get have power of speech, desire to communicate indicated through gesture
                                                                      1. Example
                                                                        1. Point object - 'What's that?' face expression
                                                                        2. Beginning of prag development
                                                                          1. Rec social context affects meaning
                                                                        3. Understanding
                                                                          1. Although child may not begin to speak they might understand meaning of certain words
                                                                            1. Word recognition
                                                                              1. Usually evident by end of 1st year
                                                                              2. Common
                                                                                1. Names. 'no' & 'bye- bye'
                                                                              3. The first word
                                                                                1. Somewhere around 12 months child makes its first recognisable word
                                                                                2. Glossary
                                                                                  1. Acclimatised
                                                                                    1. Instinctive
                                                                                      1. Cooing
                                                                                        1. Babbling
                                                                                          1. Bilabial (lips
                                                                                            1. Re- duplicated monosyllable
                                                                                              1. Phonemic Contraction
                                                                                                1. Phonemic Expansion
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