harry_bygraves
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A-Levels P.E Flashcards on PE, created by harry_bygraves on 06/12/2013.

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harry_bygraves
Created by harry_bygraves over 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Stages of a Warm up 1. Pulse raiser 2. Injury prevention 3. Skill practice 4. Sport specific
What is a pulse raiser CV exercise to raise core body temp and increase heart rate
What is injury prevention Mobility exercises to increase muscle elasticity
What is Skill Practice Working neuromuscular mechanisms needed in activity
Three types of sport drink 1. Isotionic 2. Hypotonic 3. Hypertonic
Sources of energy aerobic system, ATP-PC system and Lactic acid
Types of Stretching PNF, Ballistic, Static, Dynamic
PNF stretching involves passive stretching followed by isometric contractions
Ballistic Uses bouncing to help forcibly stretch the muscle
Static stretching Where the muscle is stretched to a safe limit and held
Dynamic stretching consists of controlled movements taking the joint through its full range of movement
Strategies to prevent anxiety and choking Mental rehersal and imagery, Self talk, Setting achievable goals, Performance monitoring, Pre-performance routines
Effects of motivation and stress control Emotional arousal, Verbal persusion, Vicarious experience, Performance accomplishments
Emotion arousal how a performer feels about arousal and anxiety levels
Verbal persuasion Significant others can encourage and motivate e.g. coach
Vicarious experience If the athlete watches others perform and achieve success, then self confidence is likely to be high
Performance accomplishments If the athlete has been successful in the past then self confidence is likely to be high
Effect of external influences on sport Social loafing, Home advantage, Social facilitation, Social inhibition
Social loafing refers to a loss in motivation when group sizes get too big
Home advantage can have a positive effect on the motivation of athletes
Social facilitation refers to the positive influence other people can have on performance e.g team mates
Social inhibition refers to the negative effects an audience can have on performance
Types of anxiety Trait, State, Conitive, Somatic, Behavioural
Trait anxiety more associated with someones anxiety
State anxiety Situation specific e.g taking a penalty
Cognitive anxiety Worry and negative feeling about your own performance
Somatic anxiety Physiological symptoms such as raised HR
Behavioual anxiety Eperiencing tension, agitation, and restlessness
Anxiety theories Catastrophe theory, Inverted U theory, Drive theory
Catastrophe theory Arousal will increase performance when cognitive anxiety is low but there will be a big decline in performance when cognitive anxiety is high
Factors athletes need to consider regarding kit and equipment Climate, playing suface, indoor or outdoor, protection
Factors athletes need to consider regarding enviromental and cultural Boots on hard ground, home support, pressure from the media
Factors athletes need to consider regarding acclimitisation Humidty, heat
Types of ergogenic aids (short term) Ice vests, Hypoxic chambers, Chemical aids (creatine), sports masssage
WADA three factors 1. Does the substance physically enhance performance 2. Is the substance deprimental to health 3. Does the substance conflict with the general spirit of the game
Holding camp Used in weeks prior to competition, allows athletes to adjust to time zones and climates
Preparation camp A training base allowing athletes to familiarise themselves with the location. Used up to a year before the event
Fatigue A reduced capacity to complete work brought about by lack of oxygen, energy or muscle tiredness
Factors that cause fatigue Depletion of muscle glycogen stores, accumilation of waste products, depletion of fuels
Centeral governor theory Suggests that fatigue is an emotional response by the brain to stop muscles from being exhausted
EPOC refers to elevated ventilation and breathing rates after exercise
Fast component of recovery Concerned with restoration of muscle phosphagen stores and takes up to four minutes
Slow component of recovery This is the process of returning the body to pre-exercise condition, including heat dissipation, energy replenishment, rehydration and removal of lactic acid
DOMS, what causes them muscle stiffness after exercise. Caused by microscopic tears and trauma to muscles from high intensity training.
Ways of preventing DOMS By building training intensity gradually, cross training
Affects of cool down on recovery Signifficantly decreases recovery time. Light exercise keeps capillaries dialted to oxidise lactic acid and remove waste products
Key Long-term adapations Increase Stroke volume, Increase cardiac output, More red blood cells, increase in myoglobin, decrease in body fat, increase muscle mass, increase energy stores, increase bodys ability to utilise lactic acid
Continous training Used mainly for developing endurance and aerobic energy system
Interval training This is work followed by periods of rest with a W:R ratio
Plyometric training This is power training involving eccentric to concentric muscle contractions
Circuit training A series of exercises performed in order. Can be fitness or sport specific stations
Weight training Exercising with variable resistance. can improve muscular endurance, dynamic and maximal strength, power and posture
SAQ involves training the neuromuscluar system to make movements more automatic and explosive
Speed training Types of speed training include hollow sprints, acceleration sprints
Stages of periodisation Macrocycle to Mesocycle to Microcycle
S.M.A.R.T.E.R Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic, Time, Exciting, Recorded
What qualities does goal setting aim to achieve Concentration, Control, Commitment, Confidence
Benefits of effective goal setting Buildes self confidence, Motivates the performer, Focuses attention
Types of goal Performance goals, Shoert-term goals, Long-term goals, Outcome goals
Four main attributions Ability, Effort, Task difficulty, Luck
Attribution retraining Helping performers avoid failure by focusing on positive attributions and removal of negative feelings
Types of motivation Intrinsic, extrinsic, achievement
Intrinsic motivation Internal drive or feelings that make us do things
Extrinsic motivation Feelings from rewards externally derived
Achievement motivation Drive to succees or persit with a task
Personality factors NACH those with a need to achive. NAF those who need to avoid failure
Situational factors The specific situation in which an individual performs will also affec their decision to accept a challenge. Two determining facotrs are; probability of success versus probability of failure. Incentive value of success versus incentive value of failure
Psychological refractory period The delay in time it takes a performer to respond to a second stimulus after being presented with a first
Anticipation This descibes the process by which decisions are made from inerpreting an opponents movemement
Deception A performer tries to decieve an opponent
Role of visulisation Process of creating a mental image of what you want to happen
Perception dimenesions is dependant of four main components Pheripheral vision, Depth perception, Dynamic acuity, Static acuity
Tow types of cohesion Taks cohesion and Social cohesion
Task cohesion The degree that memebers work together to achieve common goals
Social cohesion The degree to which members like each other and interact
Facotrs that affect the development of cohesion Enviromental (age, location), personal (drive to win, belief inthe group), leadership (influence of coach, manager), Team (roles targets)
Strategies to enhance group cohesion Encourage social bonding, Set clear tema goals, avoid star billing, Holding trainign camps, avoid the formation of cliques
Refinement technique The greater the effieciency of movement, the greater the impact of any physical effort, the greater the result. Bad swimming technique uses lots of energy
Observational feedback When analysisng a performer you shoudl compare them to the perfect model. This can be broken down to; start postion, transition, exceution, recovery
Video feedback Is increasingly used to assess technique. Dartfish and prozone allow coaches to; observe several performers at one time, analyse biomechanics of performance, compare athletes easily, track players movements
Technical ergogenic aids Force plates, Pedometry, Heart rate monitor, Wind tunnels and aerodynamics, Power guages
Force plates Calculate the force impacted in surfaces
Pedometry Device to calculate distance covered
Heart rate monitoring Allows athletes to determine intensity of training
Wind tunnels and aerodynamics used to test cycles
Power gauges Measure power accurately
Two ways sports technology can be used to improve performance Helping the performer to perfect technique through analysis, refining playing kit and equipement to give an edge
Performance analysis Works on two main disciplines; Biomechanics ( works on movement techniques), Notion analysis (focuses on growth movements)
Motion analysis Performers move through, execute their skill, on a force plate and basic motion captured. Data recieved can inform whether energy is being wasted and technique could be improved
Sports science acces for elite athletes Sports vision specialists, Diet and fluid intake controlled, Performances annalysed in detail, Sports psychologists, Trainig schedules prepared by experts to maximise fitness
Centralised model Elite sport is supported by state
Decentralised model No single agency takes control