Critical Thinking

Flashcards by T S, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by T S over 2 years ago


Becoming a Critical Thinker

Resource summary

Question Answer
Argument A conclusion about an issue that is supported by reasons.
Assumption Beliefs, usually taken for granted, that are based on the experiences, observations, or desires of an individual or group.
Biased A sample that does not reflect a random, representative population. A biased sample does not provide adequate evidence to support a conclusion.
Claim A statement or conclusion about an issue. The advocate for a claim will seek to prove the truth of the claim through evidence.
Cogent An inductive argument based on strong, credible evidence.
Conclusion A position taken about an issue, also called a claim or an opinion; in deductive reasoning, the inference drawn from the major and minor premises; in research, the meaning and significance of the data as interpreted by the researcher.
Critical Thinker Someone who uses specific criteria to evaluate reasoning, form positions, and make decisions.
Data The observation made and information collected by the researcher as he or she completes a study.
Deductive Reasoning The process of inferring a conclusion by putting forth true premises in a valid format.
Egalitarianism A belief system in which behavior is considered to be ethical when equal opportunities and consequences apply to all people.
Ethics Standards of conduct reflecting what is considered to be right or wrong behavior.
Expert An individual who has education, significant experience, or both in a given area. The testimony of experts is used to support conclusions in arguments.
Fair-minded A trait of critical thinker involving respect for others, willingness to hear and understand different viewpoints on an issue, and an openness to change when new information or insight warrants change.
Fallacious Errors in reasoning. Fallacies can be seen as (1) reasons that seem logical but don't necessarily support the conclusion or (2) statements that distract listeners from the real issue
Generalization Generalizations based on causal factors; that is, they state that a particular factor is responsible for a specific effect. These generalizations are used to strengthen inductive arguments.
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