Elizabeth I - Government and Religion

Emily Bevis
Flashcards by , created over 1 year ago

A level History (TUDORS) Flashcards on Elizabeth I - Government and Religion, created by Emily Bevis on 05/02/2018.

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Emily Bevis
Created by Emily Bevis over 1 year ago
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Question Answer
Elizabeth succession problems - Young, female, unmarried - Faced significant pressure to get married by parliament (1559, 1563, 1566) - Mother disliked = Boleyn - PROTESTANT - economic turmoil = harvests and influenza - previous FP failures = Boulogne and Calais (1550 and 1558) - BUT well educated and youth = long reign
Aims at start of reign 1) Consolidate power = imp. after chaotic MTC 2) Settle religious turmoil 3) Pursue a peaceful French settlement
4 levels of Elizabethan government * Royal Court * Privy Council * Parliament * Local Gov
Royal Court - Made up of Presence/Privy chamber - use to seek out influence and ensure support (through distribution of patronage) - Presence = open area for access of anyone with right status - Privy = greater importance - Gentlemen no longer able to access privy - Lord Chamberlain = key official - normally only close relations appointed
What was the Privy Council? - where Queen's principle ministers came together - Regular meetings - about 10 ministers - William Cecil = dominant figure - Sir Nicholas Bacon, Earl of Bedford - Policy advice/administration
Key roles of Privy Council - Star Chamber = adjudicate as court of law - Enforce religious settlement through JPs - Enforce law and regulations - e.g. law and order, prices, wages - Administer lower level officials - JPs, Sheriffs, Lieutenants - Oversee regional councils (North/Wales) - Manage crown $ with Treasurer/Exchequer
Conservative members of PC - Duke of Norfolk (Howard) = 'leader' - Earls of Sussex and Shrewsbury - regularly away from court = less influence - Robert Dudley (Leicester) = a favourite of Elizabeths - BUT influence reduced after Norfolk 1572 execution for plotting with MQS
Protestant councillors on PC - Increased influence after 1572 Norfolk execution - Became dominated by protestants - Sir Francis Walsingham, Sir Thomas Smith, Earl of Warwick
Problems with PC in 1580s - Numerous deaths = only 11 remaining members in 1597 - Dudley death = 1588 - Absense of senior advisors as son replacements lacked same political experience - Eliz refuse to let Cecil to retire - Robert Cecil promotion to replace father upset other members
Court factional rivalry - not initially big issue as balance/shared powers between councillors - Some = opposed to Cecil influence - Norfolk + MQS Northern Rebellion = attempt to restore Catholicism (1569) - 1570s and 80s = :) :) :) - Councillors often fought for Queen's interest - Earl of Essex = 1601 failed rebellion against Queen reflected growing discontent
Queens public image - strong image of good health - Seen dancing with ambassadors - Masculine power in her skilled interest in hunting BUT prone to headaches, fainting, toothache, bad eyesight 1563 = so ill Parliament pressure for successor
How did Elizabeth create a strong image? - Less extravagant court to create presentation as in charge of $ /decisions - 1963 Parliamentary subsidy of £40,000 a year to fund court BUT extra given to poor - Hosted court jousting events = Elizabeth provider of honour and glory - Controlled her portraits - Symbolism of peace, purity, plenty - "Virgin Mary" = :) Catholics - Greek goddess imagery - Hosted dances/masques at court
Define Patronage * The power to control appointments and right to privileges * Used to gain/retain loyalty of elite * Crown controlled appointments to local/central gov, church, law etc. * Also grant pensions and land = HVIII example showed the importance of land * Grant titles = only 18 total granted * Fewer nobles by death than 1558
Importance of Parliament - 'necessary but occasional evil' - secondary feature of political system ?? - conflict over Eliz SUCCESSION - But still held important roles 1) Law making = 438 acts passed (religion and social legislation) 2) Taxation = 11/13 sessions for $$$ 3) Advice = E not appreciate MP views on FP, marriage, religion, succession
How were Parliament sessions managed? - Cecil = key managerial role - Prepared Crowns legislative programme - allied team in Parliament of diplomats - Privy Council effective involvement in P sessions = outline priorities of crown - BUT anger Queen with attempts to push succession - 1563, 1566 - By 1593 less effective control as temper - 1593 3 MPs imprisoned for crossing into issues of royal prerogative
Parliament and succession - 1563 = first Parliament = called for demand of money - MPs (and secretly PC members) pushed her to name successor - On deathbed with smallpox !! - BUT considered to be issue of royal prerogative - 1566 = similarly again
What was Elizabeths main aim in parliament? MONEY * FP = 1589 double subsidy, 1593 triple subsidy and 1601 quadruple subsidy *Church = 1581/85 anti-catholic laws tightened * Crown security = after 1571 Ridolfi Plot, MQS execution debated repeatedly * Poor law = 1598
Parliament in 1601 - final P session - effective relationship broke down without management of Cecil - issue of MONOPOLIES - Compromise reached - Famous 'golden speech'
JPs - key figures in local gov - Appointed by gentry ranks or wealthy families or merchant elite - Role = punishing offenders, maintaining law and order, Poor Law and religious administration - 1600 = 50 JPs average per county - JP residency forced = unpopular laws often ignored
Lord Lieutenants - grew in influence under Elizabeth - Appointed permanently in (almost) every county - Manage the raising of troops - Supervise JP work and report local activity to Privy Council - title of prestige
Financial problems facing gov * Period of significant inflation * Crown = forced to increase income * Extended work of Mary = Book of Rates, 1558 * Between 1558-1603 = income +50% * Still not enough to afford war with Spain * Left the crown in debt
How were royal finances raised? - Mary's Book of Rates (1558) = increase income on exports - Recovery of cloth industry - Religious sources = 'first fruits' tax - Parliament = FP subsidy - Crown lands sold = £800,000
Response to 1559 settlement - satisfy majority as moderate policy - reflected mood of society = stability - BUT not solve religious disputes - Still Catholics fighting for faith restoration while others want NO 'Popish' elements - 1603 all unnecessary elements removed after Catholicism discredited by Spanish and rebellion association
Emergence of puritanism - 1560s and 70s emergence - extreme Protestants - Believed the 1559 settlement to be incomplete - 1566 = Vestiarian Controversy = refuse to wear clerical dress outlined in Uniformity - Thomas Sampson (academic) dismissed
What were the 1566 'Advertisements'? - March 1566 - required Clergy to follow one uniformity - created by AB Parker and 5 Bishops - 37 London clergymen refuse to sign = dismissed from their posts - Showed Queen determination behind settlement
What was the Presbyterian movement? - part of broader Puritan movement - Desire for further protestant reform and structure of CoE - attacked the Book of Common Prayer and called for Bishop abolishment - Cartwright = belief that 'Popish' principles created a flawed church - Based in small area = London, Essex, Suffolk, Uni of Cambridge - Elite supporters = e.g. Leicester - Movement didn't decline until late 1580s
Who was Whitgift? - Archbishop of Canterbury = Eliz supported - Powerful ally against radical elements of English church - Defended 1559 Settlement against radicals - Published articles for clergy to follow - Royal Supremacy, Prayer Book and 39 Articles = word of God - BUT despite Queen = articles weakened - Even moderate clergy struggled with justification of Prayer book
Separatists - Radical Protestants - complete sedation from Church - small congregations in London - BUT leaders executed and movement destroyed
Decline of Puritanism - 1580s - Deaths of Leicester, Walsingham, Mildmay - no longer any political supporters in court - Defeat of Spanish Armada = less threat of catholicism
Catholicism at the start of Elizabeths reign - main concern = obedience to her reign - Fines/imposed land if caught saying Catholic mass = BUT not too severe - Mary's bishops deprived of offices - BUT few of fines = collected - Lancashire still catholic rituals - even Latin service (1560s) - Elizabeth still favour cautious policy approach = as Liz not allow Parliament 1563 stricter anti-catholic laws to pass - Death penalty if refuse Oath of Supremacy
Why did Elizabeth's policy towards Catholicism become stricter? - late 1560s - 1568 = MQoS arrive in England = clear threat to throne - Catholic plots against Liz ( N.Earls, 1569 and Ridolfi Plot, 1571) - 1570 = Excommunicated from Catholic church by Pope and Pope encourage English Catholics to go against Queen orders - 1571, Treason Act = make denial of Supremacy and follow Popes orders punishable by death - BUT still block radical Protestant polices
Douai Priests * Catholic Priests trained in Europe * First arrival in 1574 = 4 Priests * 100 by 1590 * Moved around in secret * Initially not seen as major threat BUT result of MQoS and Spain = execution of several priests for denying Supremacy
Jesuit Priests - From 1580 - Trained by the society of Jesus - Focused on missionary work - Seen as dangerous fanatics - Execution of Ed Campion in 1581 - Subject to punishment in 1581 and 1585 Parliamentary acts
Parliamentary acts against Priests * 1581 = ensure Priest obedience - Saying mass = 200 mark fine, penalty of years imprisonment - Failure to attend Church = £20 per month * 1585 = result of Throckmorton - Catholic priests = 40 days to leave England - If not = high treason * During reign Liz executed 150 Cath Priests * Consequently Catholicism became less of threat - only remained in wealthy homes
Condition of Church in 1603 - 1559 Settlement remained basis of Elizabeths church - Radicals = more acceptance of middle of the road policies - Catholicism discredited by rebellions due to its attempt to overthrow legitimate monarch