Elizabeth I - Foreign Policy

Emily Bevis
Flashcards by Emily Bevis, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily Bevis
Created by Emily Bevis over 2 years ago


A level History (TUDORS) Flashcards on Elizabeth I - Foreign Policy, created by Emily Bevis on 05/08/2018.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Problems with succession - Female, young, unmarried - Ministers encourage marriage to avoid another Catholic succession - BUT Elizabeth consider it an issue of Royal Prerogative = clash with Parliament (1559, 1563, 1566)
Elizabeth's potential suitors * Robert Dudley = Earl of Leicester BUT not of royal blood and anger other noblemen * Phillip II of Spain = CATHOLIC so gesture of marriage not taken seriously * Archdukes Ferdinand and Charles = CATHOLIC * Prince Eric of Sweden = Protestant with royal blood BUT Eliz not keen
1563 Parliament - Issue of succession after Eliz ill with smallpox in 1562 - If no confirmed successor = crisis ?!! - Lady Catherine Grey = troublesome secret marriage - Mary QoS = a Catholic 'enemy' - Eliz refuse to make decision
Other Parliamentary discussions of succession - 1566 Parliament - Pushed by Cecil and Leicester - Eliz = furious speech to HOR and banished Leicester and Pembroke from Presence Council - 1579 = announced that Eliz could still bear children - Rumor of marriage to Duke of Anjou (King of France bro) BUT :( response
Succession final decision - Liz personal decision not to marry - Decided more disadvantages than :) - MQoS executed 1587 - James VI of Scotland = Protestant - 2 sons by 1600 = stability - Essex and R.Cecil kept in contact with James throughout reign = smooth succession in 1603 - Own power in mind? - BUT Liz refuse to confirm any successor
Mary Queen of Scots before 1559 - Queen at 6 days old + succession at 9 months after Solway Moss failure - Treaty Greenwich 1543 = MQoS and Ed to marry - 1546 = agreement to marry Francis II - Brought up/educated in France = Catholic - 1558 = French marriage - 1559 = Became Queen of France
Mary's problems on the Scottish throne - After 1560 Francis death = struggle to find new Husband - Mary not given any influence by her Protestant council - Married Lord Darnley, 1565 BUT rumored affair with adviser = pregnant -Suspected murder of Darnely - Believed to be unsuitable leader = forced abdication in 1568
Mary's English imprisonment - flee to England after abdication - On house arrest for 19 years - Eliz forced to respond as if support = anger Scottish protestant allies BUT if nothing then shows fragility of monarchy - Legal case to investigate Darnleys death = allegations of MQoS involvement damaging
5 rebellions/plots under Elizabeth * Northern Earls, 1569 * The Ridolfi Plot, 1571 * Papacy threat (1570s-80s) * Throckmorton Plot, 1583 * The Babington Plot, 1586
Rebellion of Northern Earls, 1569 - Spanish Ambassador encourage noblemen rebellion against Liz - Support of Mary QoS - Duke of Norfolk = plot against Liz and Cecil's high influence - BUT Norfolk quick surrender - Control of Durham castle - Met by Liz forces in South = 800 executed
Consequences and threat of Northern Earls - Liz reform Council of North and took greater control of North - Realised greater threat of MQoS - BUT no serious threat as nothing bigger sparked and ended easily - Threat of Catholicism greater
Ridolfi Plot 1571 - Ridolfi = Italian merchant - involved 1569 - Plot for Mary and Norfolk to marry - Cecil hear through spy network - Norfolk arrested and executed in 1572 - Spanish Ambassador expelled - BUT Mary not executed - Little threat to Eliz
Papacy 1570/80s threat - Mary kept imprisoned as constant threat to Eliz throne - BUT her execution = inevitable Spanish war - 1580 = papal bull encouraging assassination of Elizabeth - Clear to Mary that Spanish intervention = best bet of gaining Eng. throne - Lead to later threat to throne/WAR
The Throckmorton Plot, 1583 - Throckmorton became messenger between Mary and Spanish ambassador - BUT revealed details of plot under torture - Ambassador expelled and Mary moved to more secure location - Only real threat = growing threat of Spanish war
The Babington Plot, 1586 - most significant plot to replace Eliz with Mary !! - BUT easily uncovered by spies - Conspirators = arrested/executed - Mary found guilty but Liz still reluctant to execute (family, monarch blood, french connection) - BUT warrant signed in 1587
Impact of Babington Plot - Lead to greater Spanish threat = another reason for them to invade - Mary executed against Liz wishes as she still delayed warrant - Wrote apology to James but no opposition as left him as the next successor - BIGGEST threat
Anglo-Spanish relations at the start of Elizabeths reign - Good relations - Still :) legacy of Phillip and Mary's marriage - Phillip offer symbolic marriage to Liz
Why did Spanish relations worse in the 1960s? - John Hawkins = attempted to break Spanish trading monopoly - Consequently his fleet blockaded in Mexican port in 1563 - Netherlands = competition between Catholic Spanish influence and Protestant English influence - BUT Liz had reservations - Spanish harassment = 1568 storm left Spanish ships refuged in England containing $ which Liz impounded - Spanish support of Mary's rebellions
Problem with Netherlands in 1572 - Liz expelled the 'Sea Beggars' (rebel Dutch pirates) = forced to dock in Dutch port - (Spanish army occupied Netherlands) - Sparks a rebellion in Netherlands against Spanish rule - 1576 'Pacification of Ghent' as Netherland demand explosion of all foreign troops and restoration of their 52 provinces - Elizabeth agreed with plan
When and why did the Netherlands start to split? - 1579 - North Protestant = Union of Utrecht - South Catholic = Union of Arras - Spanish established control in South
How did Liz challenge the 1580s growth in Spanish power? - Liz support claim of Don Antonio's claim to Portuguese throne (illegitimate) - Try and challenge Spanish influence in Portugal - Knighting Sir Francis Drake = navigator disliked by Spain - Negative treatment of Spanish ambassador
Treaty of Joinville - at the end if 1584 - agreement between Phillip II of Spain and French Catholic League - Concern for Liz as could lead to greater support for Mary QoS
Treaty of Nunsuch, 1585 - response to Joinville - Alliance with with Dutch Protestants - sent troops to Netherlands under command of E.o.Leicester - NOT a success - Troops badly paid, officers deserted, commanders argue = believe making Catholic alliance behind their back - Leicester resign in 1588 - Phillip thought showed divisions !!!!
What was the Spanish Armada? - 1588 - delayed from 1587 after successful English attack on Cadiz port - A complex plan by the Spanish to invade England with a 130 ship fleet
Armada plan? 1) Spain travel to England 2) Pick up 30,000 Spanish troops form Netherland 3) Meet 25,000 Eng. Catholics in Kent 4) Capture London and return England to Catholicism
What actually happened in the armada? 1) Armada spotted by England 2) Armada chased up the channel by English ships = 11km of sea 3) Armada anchor in Calais but attacking English 'fireships' threaten position 4) Battle of Gravelines, 1588 = force Armada to return to Spain 5) Armada return and sail north around Scot 6) STORMS destroy 1/3 of ships on their sail home = only 67 fit for use
Elizabeth's naval campaign - Success - 3 attacks on Spanish mainland - 1596 = capture and occupy Cadiz - Humiliating blow to Phillip as it prevented the Spanish ships sailing to Caribbean - BUT failed attack on Panama (Netherlands) - Response = 1596, Spanish attempt invasion of England - Storms = failure but Spanish threat
Ireland after 1588 - Phillip tried to exploit for Spanish :) - 1597 = troop commanded by Essex sent to attack the Spanish fleet in the N.West of Sp. - BUT storm prevented English attack and Spanish fleet landing in Ireland - BUT huge panic in 1599 over false info = the fear of Spanish invasion
Netherlands after 1588 - improved relations - Dutch paid share towards maintaining English troops in Netherlands - 1594 = Spanish troops expelled from northern NL lands = independent state - South Netherlands also maintained degree of indep. from Spain = no remaining NL dependency on foreign powers
What was Elizabeths primary focus with her late foreign policy? - To protect NATIONAL SECURITY - Reason for focus on Spanish threat - But critics suggest a war against religion = ensure protection of Protestantism
Tyrone Rebellion - 1595 - Most significant rebellion in Ireland - linked with on-going Spanish threat as try to include Irish ship in 1596 Armada - Battle of Yellow Ford, 1598 = success - Tyrone control the 'pale' (beyond Dublin) - Attempt to establish independent Catholic Ireland with Spanish support - 1599 = Essex sent to end rebellion BUT return to England after making truce - 1601 = 3000 Spanish troops land in Ireland to support Tyrone = Battle of Kinsale - FAILURE = forced to make treaty with England in 1603
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