Common nervous conditions in cattle

Alinta Kalns
Flashcards by Alinta Kalns, updated more than 1 year ago
Alinta Kalns
Created by Alinta Kalns over 2 years ago


Listeria Botulism Thromboembolic meningoencephalitis Tetanus Pituitary abscess syndrome Nervous coccidiosis Cerebral babesiosis Polioencaphalomalacia Vitamin A deficiency Lead poisoning Water intoxication Urea poisoning Perennial ryregrass staggers Annual ryegrass toxicity Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis

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Question Answer
What is the most common syndrome of Listeria monocytogenes in Australia? What are the other syndromes? Meningoencephalitis Abortion, septicaemia/uveitis, mastitis
What is the incidence of listerial meningoencephalitis in cattle? 2-3 year olds - tooth eruptions allow bacteria to invade Travels via trigeminal nerve to brain
What lesions occur with Listerial meningoencephalitis? Focal necrosis and micro-abscesses of nerves, brain, and meninges
Which route of transmission is more important in Listeria zoonosis? Food contamination
What are common signs of Listerial meningoencephalitis? Unilateral facial paralysis + secondary keratitis Head tilt + circling +/- recumbency and opisthotonus Propulsive tendency Pyrexia (first 96 hours) Depression, weight loss, milk drop
What are uncommon signs of listeria meningoencephalitis? Stertor Dysphagia
Which 3 nerves does listeria most commonly affect? Facial vestibulocochlear Glossopharyngeal
How would you diagnose listeria infection? CS Post-mortem + histopathology Cold enrichment culture
What are differentials for listerial meningoencephalitis? Brain stem abscess Pituitary abscess syndrome Otitis media Trauma TEME Lead poisoning Nervous ketosis
How would you treat listeriosis? High dose penicillin or tetracyclines 7 days NSAIDs IV fluids + electrolytes Rumen support
How could you prevent listeria meningoencephalitis? Proper silage collection and storage - Anaerobia - Allow 24 hours to wilt prior - Early growth grass = more sugars - Cover + seal tightly
What clostridium botulinum types affect cattle? Types C and D (maybe B)
What is the lethal dose of botulinum toxin? 10 ug
What is botulinum intoxication associated with? Phosphorous deficiency Contaminated food (carcasses, decaying vegetation) = outbreaks
What are the forms of botulinum intoxication and what are the CS? Peracute - death Subacute - ascending flaccid paralysis (dysphagia + tongue protrusion early sign) Toxico-infectious - chronic toxin absorption due to vegetative GIT growth
What is a distinguishing feature of botulinum paralysis? Cattle remain conscious and have sensation
How would you diagnose botulinum intoxication? Relapse after calcium treatment History of P deficiency or poor nutrition No vaccination history No other disease evidence ELISA Abs Rumen content toxicology
How would you treat and prevent botulinum intoxication? Antitoxin + supportive P supplementation Vaccination annually Remove carcasses Assess risk in feed
What pathogen causes thromboembolic meningoencephalitis (TEME)? Histophilus somni
Which form of histophilus somni infection is TEME? Septicaemic form - Infarction of the CNS
CS of TEME? Rapidly progressing: Pyrexia Ataxia --> stupor Muscle tremors Retinal haemorrhage/hypopyon Mortality
How do you diagnose TEME? Post-mortem Fibrinopurulent meningitis + hyperaemia Focal infarcts + haemorrhages
When and how would you treat TEME? Before recumbency - penicillin - florfenicol - Oxytetracycline
What could help prevent TEME? Manage against the respiratory syndrome - Reduce stress - Avoid overcrowding - Good nutrition - Biosecurity
How does Clostridium tetani infect cattle? Via deep, anaerobic wounds - E.g. castration, dehorning, tail docking, omphalophlebitis Travels up local motor neurons to spinal cord OR idiopathic multiplication in rumen
What are the CS of tetanus? 10-14 days post-infection - stiffness - Hyperaesthesia, anxiety, erect ears, bulging eyes - Lockjaw, slight bloat, rigid stance + tail Tetany + convulsions --> recumbency + opisthotonus
How would you treat tetanus? 1. Anti-toxin in early stages 2. Wound debridement + penicillin 3. Relax muscle tetany - acetylpromazine Quiet, dark area + relieve bloat
Tetanus prevention? Toxoid or multi-valent clostridial vaccine 2 doses 4-6 weeks apart
What is the aetiology of pituitary abscess syndrome (basilar empyema)? Haematogenous bacteria invade rete mirabile or cavernous sinus of pituitary Bull nose rings
What are the CS of pituitary abscess syndrome? Salivation and inability to swallow Tongue protrusion Head extended Wide-base stance, ataxia, depression Recumbency + opisthotonus
Diagnosis of pituitary abscess syndrome? Neuro exam - absent pupillary light reflex, exophthalmos, strabismus, nystagmus, dysphagia + flaccid tongue, facial paralysis + head tilt, bradycardia PM - abscess of pituitary
What are main differentials for pituitary abscess syndrome? Listeriosis Otitis media
What are CS of nervous coccidiosis? Tenesmus and dysentery 1st Depression, incoordination, hyperaesthesia --> Recumbency, tremors, frothing, paddling --> ventroflexion of head or opisthotonus
What are differential diagnoses for nervous coccidiosis? Polioencephalomalacia Lead poisoning Salt intoxication Acute meningitis Hypovitaminosis A C. perfringens enterotoxaemia
What is the aetiology and CS of cerebral babesiosis? Babesia bovis Hyperaesthesia, aggression Nystagmus, convulsions, circling + head pressing Paralysis +/- fever, anaemia, haemoglobinuria
What pathology is associated with polioencephalomalacia (PEM) Necrosis of the cerebral cortical grey matter
What can cause PEM? Salt toxicity Lead poisoning Thiamine deficiency (high sulphur diets or high concentrate diets)
What are CS of PEM? Well-fed young cattle Transient diarrhoea + self-isolation Depression, ataxia, high head carriage Central mediated blindness Hyperaesthesia head pressing + bruxism Recumbency, opisthotonus, rigidity, seizures
What is central mediated blindness? Absent menace response but present palpebral and pupillary light reflexes
How can you diagnosis PEM? CS + normal rumen function Response to TX PM - cerebral pallor + oedema, grey matter vacuolation, UV fluorescence
What are differentials of PEM Lead poisoning Salt toxicity Listeria Bacterial meningitis Vitamin A or magnesium deficiency TEME
How would you treat PEM? Thiamine IV for 3 days
How long does it take for adult cattle to develop vitamin A deficiency CS? 180 days
What are risk factors for hypovitaminosis A? Drought Poor quality preserved feed High grain diet Repeat bloat oil admin
What are CS of hypovitaminosis A in calves? Anorexia, ill-thrift, diarrhoea Blindness Lacrimation Head-pressing, convulsions, paralysis, recumbency
What are CS of hypovitaminosis A in adult cattle? Night blindness Weight loss Infertility
How to managed hypovitaminosis A? Vitamin A IV Culling if blind
What are CS of lead poisoning? Peracute sudden death Acute - depression, ataxia, hyperaesthesia + aggression, blindness, head-pressing, rumen atony Subacute - depression, anorexia, blindness, incoordination, constipation --> diarrhoea, death in a few days
How do you diagnose lead poisoning in cattle? Whole blood lead concentrations Renal cortex lead concentration
How would you treat lead poisoning? Chelation - calcium compounds Magnesium sulphate PO Thiamine HCl IV Pentobarbitone (convulsions)
What is the pathogenesis of water intoxication? Restricted water access = fluid drawn out of CNS Rapid rehydration --> rapid fluid movement into CNS --> oedema and PEM
What are clinical signs of water intoxication? Opisthotonus, nystagmus, tremors, weakness, head-pressing Central blindness Polyuria and haemoglobinuria due to intravascular haemolysis
How would you treat water intoxication? Sedation IV NaCl 0.9% slowly over 24 hours
What is the pathogenesis of urea poisoning? Normally bacteria in rumen capture ammonia made from urea Overwhelming amounts = overwhelmed bacteria and liver --> ammonia in blood
What are CS of urea poisoning? 20 minutes post-ingestion Muscle twitching, hypersalivation, bruxism, abdominal pain, PU --> tremors, tachypnoea, ataxia, convulsions and collapse
How can you diagnose urea poisoning? History Rapid decomposition of carcass PM - bloat, congestion/oedema, cardiac haemorrhage Rumenocentesis alkaline
How could you treat urea poisoning? Rumenotomy + content evac 50 L cold water + vinegar/acetic acid PO
What is the aetiology of ryegrass staggers? Endophytic fungus grows on perennial ryegrass - Neotyphodium lolii Lolitrem B toxin
What are CS for ryegrass staggers When disturbed: - Tremors/muscle fasciculations Jerky stiff gait Head nodding Ataxia + sternal recumbency and splayed hind limbs
How can you treat ryegrass staggers? Remove from pasture Takes 1-2 weeks
What is the aetiology of annual ryegrass toxicity? Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) Rathayibacter toxicus neurotoxin Bacterial invasion via Anguina nematode
What are CS of annual ryegrass toxicity? Sudden death Cerebellar dysfunction - wide-base stance - ataxia - Hypermetria Collapse, convulsions, opisthotonus
Diagnosis of annual ryegrass toxicity? Presence of all 3 predisposing factors
Treatment of annual ryegrass toxicity? Remove from infected pasture and supplementary feed Biological control of nematode
What is the aetiology of sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis? Chlamydia pecorum Cattle <3 years
What are CS of sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis? Fever, depression, hypersalivation Diarrhoea, anorexia, weight loss Stiffness, ataxia, head tilt, hyperaesthesia, recumbency, opisthotonus
What pathology does chlamydia pecorum cause? Vasculitis and serositis Meningoencephalitis Fibrinous peritonitis, pleuritis, pericarditis
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