Pharmacology notes 1

Flashcards by mereana.matairan, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by mereana.matairan almost 6 years ago


Flashcards on Pharmacology notes 1, created by mereana.matairan on 10/19/2014.

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Why was Curare found to be useful by anesthetists? Because the drug acts as a muscle relaxant. It prevents muscle contraction. So long as the patient is ventilated throughout, they will be relaxed and easy to operate on during surgery.
Acetlycholine is a nicotinic ______? Agonist.
Curare in various forms is a nicotinic _____? Antagonist. It is a non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agent at nicotinic receptor sites.
Define Pharmacology: The study of the interaction between exogenous chemicals (xenobiotics) and living organisms.
How might an organism affect a xenobiotic? Through transport, distribution and metabolism of the xenobiotic.
How might a xenobiotic affect an organism? By molecular targets, mode of action and toxicology within the organism.
Define drug: A chemical taken that is intended to modulate the current physiological status quo.
Define ligand: A compound that binds to another molecule, e.g. a receptor for a protein.
What is Bioavailability? The amount or proportion of a drug that becomes available to the body following its administration.
What is Pharmacokinetics? What the body does to a drug.
What is Pharmacodynamics? What a drug does to the body.
The first written knowledge of materials that could relieve pain/alter moods/perception etc. date back to when and where? Approx. 2700 B.C. in China. Pen Tsao - described uses and classifications of medicinal plants.
In 1550 B.C. written prescriptions and similar medical advances were present in: Ancient Egypt, Babylonia and India. (400-300 B.C. the Greeks made huge pharmacological advances.)
What was the Doctrine of Signatures? Assumption that herbs that resembled parts of the body could be used to treat ailments there.
What does mandrake root contain that gives it anti-cholinergic properties? Atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Acts as a hallucinogen and hyponotic.
Why might the plant datura also have these effects? Flowers and fruit contain anti-cholinergics also; atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine.
What important pharmacological advances arose in the 19th century? Knowledge to provide pure compounds and allow careful monitoring of their physiological effects.
What drug does the opium poppy provide? Morphine for analgesia.
What drug did the mandrake root provide? Scopolamine for sedation and anaesthesia.
What drug did the coca leaf provide? Cocaine for local anaesthesia.
Salicin (isolated from willow) led to the development of what drug? Acetylsalicyclic acid/aspirin. Related compound with less side effects.
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