WCC VCE PE: Aerobic Chronic Adaptions

Tim Hodge
Flashcards by Tim Hodge, updated 7 months ago
Tim Hodge
Created by Tim Hodge over 6 years ago
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Description

These flashcards explain how each of the chronic adaptations to an aerobic training program will lead to improved performance in an athlete.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Pulmonary diffusion RESPIRATORY Pulmonary diffusion will increase. More O2 is diffused from the alveoli to the capillaries, resulting in more O2 being delivered to the working muscles
Ventilation RESPIRATORY V=TVxRR Ventilation will increase @ max intensities due to an increase in Tidal Volume (volume per breath) @ rest and sub-max a slight decrease due to increased pulmonary diffusion
Tidal volume RESPIRATORY Unchanged at rest. Increased at Sub-max and max intensities. Leads to more air being breathed in per breath and more O2 being diffused into the capillaries
Decreased O2 cost to the ventilatory muscles RESPIRATORY The Intercostal muscles and Diaphragm are more efficient in their contractions and require less O2. More O2 can be utilised at the working muscles
Stroke Volume CARDIOVASCULAR Increases at all intensities. Results from the increased volume of the left ventricle, causing HR to be lower at rest & sub-max. Leads to more blood being circulated around the body @max intensity, meaning more O2 being delivered to the working muscles
Faster recovering heart rate CARDIOVASCULAR When aerobically trained, an athlete will return to their resting heart rate faster, due to their improved ability to deliver O2 to the working muscles and the decreased reliance on the Anaerobic Glycolysis ES, resulting in the build-up of less Metabolic by-products
Capilarisation at the muscles (slow-twitch) CARDIOVASCULAR Capillary density will increase in the muscles, resulting in a greater surface area and more gaseous exchange (increased a-v02 diff) occurring. (More O2 enters the muscles)
Increased Blood Volume CARDIOVASCULAR Due to an increase in RBC's (hemoglobin and Plasma levels. More O2 can be transported to the working muscles.
Increased Red Blood Cell (RBC) count CARDIOVASCULAR This also means that there is more hemoglobin in the blood stream. This increases the O2 carrying capacity of the blood, resulting in more O2 being delivered to the working muscles
Decreased systolic blood pressure @ rest & sub-max intensities CARDIOVASCULAR Results in long term health benefits, with less pressure being exerted on the artery walls
Oxidative enzymes MUSCULAR Oxidative enzymes increase. Oxidative enzymes result in the breakdown of glycogen and fats at a faster rate. Will lead to an increase in a-vo2 difference
Myoglobin MUSCULAR Increased Myoglobin Myoglobin carries O2 within the muscle cell. The more myoglobin present, the increased opportunity to breakdown fuels aerobically. Will lead to an increase in a-vo2 difference
Mitochondria MUSCULAR Increased size and number and surface area of Mitochondria. They are the power stations of the cells. The more we have, the greater our capacity is to break down fuels (CHO, Fats) to produce ATP
a-vO2 difference MUSCULAR The a-vO2 difference will increase. Our muscles have a greater capacity to diffuse more O2 from our capillaries (due to increase in myoglobin, mitochondria & oxidative enzymes), resulting in a greater difference in O2 concentration between the arterioles and venules
Triglyceride stores MUSCULAR Increased triglyceride (fat) stores in the muscle, means that we have a greater potential to produce ATP using O2.
Glycogen stores MUSCULAR Increased glycogen (CHO) stores, means that we have a greater capacity to produce ATP and maintain higher intensities within the Aerobic training zone (70-85% max HR).
Glycogen sparing MUSCULAR As our body becomes more efficient at delivering O2 to the working muscles, we will be able to utilise a higher % of fats at sub-max intensities. This means our glycogen stores will remain higher, allowing us to work at higher intensities at a later stage in the event. Hence increasing our ability to glycogen spare.
Cardiac Output (Q) CARDIOVASCULAR Cardiac Output will remain unchanged at rest and sub-max. Will increase at maximal intensity. Q=HRxSV Increase is due to an increase in SV. HR will be lower at rest and sub-max but remain unchanged at max
VO2 (Oxygen consumption) RESPIRATORY, CV, MUSCULAR Unchanged or decrease @ rest and sub-max Increased at max (VO2 max) Refers to the amount of O2 the body can uptake and utilise for ATP resynthesis per minute. Can be measured as absolute or relative. All adaptations that increase O2 supply to the muscles aid in this increase.
Lactate inflection point (LIP) RESPIRATORY, CV, MUSCULAR LIP will increase allowing the athlete to work at a higher intensity without accumulating lactate due to increased ability to resynthesise ATP with the aerobic energy system
Aerobic Training Methods Continuous Fartlek HIIT Long-Interval Circuit*
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