Thermoregulation

Joanne Wills
Mind Map by Joanne Wills, updated more than 1 year ago
Joanne Wills
Created by Joanne Wills about 4 years ago
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Degree Veterinary medicine (POS) Mind Map on Thermoregulation, created by Joanne Wills on 02/16/2016.
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Resource summary

Thermoregulation
1 Poikilotherm
1.1 temperature same as environment
1.2 ectotherm
1.3 invertebrates, fish, amphibia, reptiles
2 Homeotherm
2.1 endotherm
2.2 maintain body temperature regardless of environment
2.3 requires high metabolic rate
2.4 mammals, birds
3 Heat production
3.1 increased metabolism
3.2 muscle contraction
3.2.1 shivering
3.2.2 exercise
3.3 non-shivering thermogenesis
4 Heat loss
4.1 non-evaporative heat transfer to environment
4.1.1 convection
4.1.2 conduction
4.1.3 radiation
4.2 evaporative heat loss
4.2.1 from body surface and respiratory system
5 Factors affecting heat exchange
5.1 physical
5.1.1 weather, size/shape, insulation, colour, peripheral blood flow
5.2 behavioural
5.2.1 too hot
5.2.1.1 avoid sun

Annotations:

  • seek shade, burrow
5.2.1.2 increase evaporative heat loss

Annotations:

  • wallow, spray, lick fur
5.2.1.3 increase non-evaporative heat loss

Annotations:

  • postural changes - spread out to increase surface area
5.2.2 too cold
5.2.2.1 reduce sensible heat loss
5.2.2.2 shelter
5.2.2.3 huddle
5.2.2.4 freeze

Annotations:

  • avoids water penetration 
6 Piloerection
6.1 cold
6.1.1 maximum boundary layer
6.1.2 increased insulation
6.2 hot
6.2.1 reduced boundary layer
6.2.2 decreased insulation
6.3 controlled by sympathetic innervation
7 Sweat glands
7.1 evaporative heat loss
7.2 secretion controlled by sympathetic innervation
7.3 contents

Annotations:

  • water, urea, lactic acid, sodium, potassium, sometimes protein herbivores preferentially lose potassium so conserves water loss
8 HYPOTHERMIA
8.1 heat loss exceeds capacity for heat production
8.2 temperature drops

Annotations:

  • reduced CO and BP, decreased oxygen consumption, increased blood viscosity, reduced mental abilities, lose consciousness 
9 HYPERTHERMIA
9.1 heat production exceeds ability to lose heat
9.2 excess water and salt loss
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