Sociology final

Alexandrea Guzzo
Flashcards by Alexandrea Guzzo, updated more than 1 year ago
Alexandrea Guzzo
Created by Alexandrea Guzzo almost 7 years ago
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key terms for sociology final on 12/15

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Question Answer
Culture of poverty the view that the poor are qualitatively different in values and lifestyles from the rest 0f society and that these cultural differences explain continued poverty
Recidivism re-involvement in crime
cultural deprivation an ethnocentric term implying that the culture of another group is not only deficient but also inferior
primary deviance the original illegal act preceding the successful application of the deviant label
corporate crime the illegal and/or socially harmful behaviors that result from the deliberate decisions or corporate executives in accordance with corporate goals.
political crime either crime against the state (the order model's view) or crime by the state (the conflict model's view)
deviance behavior that violates the expectations of society
the labeling theory the explanation of deviant behavior that stresses the importance of the society in defining what is illegal and in assigning deviant status to particular individuals which in turn dominates their identities and behaviors
radical nonintervention Schur's term for the strategy of leaving juvenile delinquents alone as much as possible rather than processing (and labeling) them through the criminal justice system
social Darwinism the belief that the principle of the survival of the fittest applies to human societies, especially the system of stratification
outsourcing the practice of corporations of contracting work outside the company and its relatively well-paid (usually unionized) workers to companies inside and outside the United States where costs are cheaper
contingent employment work arrangement where employees work for employers as temporaries or as independent contractors
immigration the movement of people from one nation to another for permanent residence
assimilation the process by which individuals or groups voluntarily or involuntarily adopt the culture of another group, losing their original identity
dependency ratio the relationship between old-age social security recipients and those workers paying social security taxes
globalization the economic, political, and social connections and interdependence among the societies in the world
new poor the poor who are displaced by new technologies or whose jobs have moved away to the suburbs, to other regions of the country, or out of the country
demographics the scientific study of the size, composition, and changes in human populations
disengagement the process of removing oneself from society
offshoring when a company moves its operations to another country
sunrise industries industries characterized by increased output and employment
sunset industries industries declining in both output and employment
social class a number if people who occupy the same relative economic rank in the stratification system
caste system the closed system of social stratification. membership is fixed at birth and is permanent
social differentiation the process of categorizing people by some personal attribute
life chances Weber's term for the chances throughout one's life cycle to live and experience the good things in life
race a group socially defined on the basis of a presumed common genetic heritage resulting in distinguishing physical characteristics
ethnicity shared cultural heritage
gender roles the understanding of gender differences that emphasize the characteristics that individuals learn in the socialization process
sex-gender system a system of stratification that ranks and rewards gender roles unequally
patriarchy a form of social organization in which males dominate females
Matrix of Domination the intersections of the hierarchies of class, race, and gender in which each of us exists
vertical mobility movement upward or downward in social class
horizontal mobility changes in occupations or other situations without moving from one social class to another
intergenerational mobility the difference in social class position between (typically) a son and his father
intragenerational mobility the movement by an individual from one social class to another
feminization of poverty a reference to the relatively large number of female-headed households living in poverty
wealthfare receipt by the affluent of financial aid and/or services from the government
social mobility movement by an individual from one social class or status group to another
regressive tax rate a tax rate that remains the same for all people rich or poor. the result is that poor people pay a larger proportion of their earned income than do affluent people.
welfare receipt of financial aid and/or services from the government
severely poor those at least 50 percent below the official poverty line
family particular social construct whereby persons are related by ancestry, marriage, adoption, or choice
household a residential unit of unrelated individuals who pool resources and perform common tasks of production and consumptions
modern family (nuclear family) the nuclear family that emerged in response to the requirements of an urban, industrial society. it consisted of an intact nuclear household unit with a male breadwinner, his full-time homemaker wife, and their dependent children.
postmodern families Judith Stacey's term for the multiplicity of family and household arrangements that has emerged as a result of a number of social forces, such as women in the labor force, divorce, remarriage, and cohabitation arrangements
nonfamily household people who live alone or with unrelated individuals
work-family interference the ways in which the connections between jobs and family may be a source of tension for workers and family members
downward mobility decline in socioeconomic status by an individual or family
spillover carrying over the concerns, responsibilities and demands of one part of life to another (for example: the conditions of work that affect family life)
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