Britain Western Civilization

Jordan Pugh
Flashcards by Jordan Pugh, updated more than 1 year ago
Jordan Pugh
Created by Jordan Pugh over 5 years ago


History of Britain

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The Counter-Reformation (1545-1648) The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Council of Trent (1545-1563) The council reaffirmed the church’s commitment to the Seven Sacraments, the authority of the Pope, the celibacy of priests, indulgences (but banned the selling of them), free will, transubstantiation, justification by works, use of images, and the Latin Bible. Additionally it called for the creation of better seminaries that would lead to better educated priests.
Saint Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) Founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1539 who: Took vow of absolute obedience to the Pope and were willing to travel wherever the Pope directly Helped restore Catholicism in parts of Germany and eastern Europe and spread it to other parts the World through missionary work.
Saint Francis Xavier (1506-1552) Francis Xavier was trained by Ignatius of Loyola. The first Jesuit missionary, he spread Catholicism to India, Japan, and Indonesia.
Spanish Missions Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans established outposts missions to spread Catholicism sto natives. Additionally, the missions expanded the frontiers of the Spanish Empire.
Missionaries in French North America Led by the Jesuits, the French missionaries lived among the tribes. They learned native languages and accepted their ways. They showed the similarities between Catholicism and native practices. The most famous of which were the eight JEsuit missionaries “The Canadian Martyrs” who were killed by the Iroquois during warfare with the Huron between 1642-1649. They were canonized in 1930. A Religiously Divided Europe
Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Bohemian Phase (1618-1625) Catholic Ferdinand I became the Holy Roman Emperor Despite promising to tolerate Calvinism, he tries to re-Catholicize Bohemia Bohemian nobles rose up and elected Frederick V to be Emperor instead Ferdinand refused to step down and Catholics and Protestants fought
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Invasion and kingdoms Conversion to Christianity Alfred the great and defeat of the vikings Unification and attacks Norman England Norman conquest Transformation of english language and culture Civil war Plantagent
Henry II, thomas becket, and the expansion of rule The crusades Magna carta Creation of Parliament Conquest of wales Anglo Scottish wars Hundred years war War of roses
Prehistory Roman Brtain The roman baths Scotland: the limjts of roman colonization Beginning in 122 and completed in 128 the 80 miles of hadrians wall were built on the order of roman emperor hadrian "to separate romans from barbarians" the wall served as an important defense against attacks from Scotland and helped control border trade and migration in 142 emperor antonious pius ordered the 12 years construction the wall only lasted for 20 years before the romans wee forced back to the boudary of hadrians wall.
The anglo saxon slide The Heptarchy (500-850) The kingdoms of the Heptarchy were operated independently of each other and were ruled by different kings until ultimately being united. Christianization of England Through areas remained of the initial Celtic conversions to Christianity in Ireland Scotland, and Wales, england needed to be reconverted after the invasion of the Anglo saxons Sent by pope gregory the great in 596 saint augustine of canterbury travelled to anglosaxon england and began converting the population to Christianity beginning in kent. After augustine's death the missionary work continued Viking invasion 8-10th century thing
Alfred the Great King of wessex Having conquered Northumbria, east anglia, and mercia the vikings attacked wessex Forces left by alfred defeated the vikings in their initial assault at the battle of ashdown Taking down the vikings and bringing down Alfred expanded the territory of wessex and laid the foundation of the unification of england 28 years later.
Edward the elder son of alfred the great expanded the territories of wessex through the capture of the midlands and east anglia from the vikings ruled over mercia beginning in 918
Æthelstan son of edward the elder Conquered the kingdom of york became the first king of the english
King harold 11 Upon death of edward, harold claims the throne Successfully defended his claim against an invasion by the king of Norway Overthrow and killed during the norman conquest of William The norman conquest slide here
William the conquer William and a force of 5000 invaded and defeated harold at the battle of hastings Crowned king in Westminster abbey on Christmas day Built hundreds of castles throughout england to help put down anglo saxon resistance and aid the occupation In the winter william, and his men attacked the north in attempt to put down anglosaxon resistance over 100000 people were killed as william and his men burned villages killed civilians and destroyed livestock and
Thomas Beckett Appointed Chancellor Selves as the archbishop of canterbury. Tb served as essentially the head of the english catholic church Henry tried to kill thomas beckett because he wasn't ted to rule the church instead of the church deciding
Richard the lionheart King for ten years but only there twice bjt because he wss out heloing while the crisades anf then reaches an agreementwith jursalom to travel to the holy land. King john King of england As a result if his conflict with the pope over the appointment of bishops england was placed under an interdict from Defeated at the battle of bouvines and lost anjou brittany maine normandy and the touraine to the french In response to his high taxes conflict with the pope and loss of french territories a group of barons ultimately rose up and forced him to sign the Magna Carta in 1215
Magna Carta 1215 and the First Baron’s War The Magna Carta was the first document of its kind, it required the King to follow the rule of law. Despite agreeing to its terms, King John convinced the Pope to declare it to be void. As a result, Many Barons rose up and invited Prince Louis of France to rule over England. Only after most of the Barons defected from Louis and an agreement was reached to reinstate the Magna Carta did John’s son Henry III (Reign 1216-1272) become King.
The Creation of Parliament 1215: Magna Carta states the right of barons to consult with and advise King 1258: Nobles draft “Provisions of Oxford” which called for regular Parliaments with representatives 1264-1267: Nobles led by Simon de Montfort fight the Second Barons’ War against King Henry III and expand the power and representation of Parliament
Edward I of Edward/ Edward Longshanks (1239-1307) KIng of England Conquered Wales and placed it under English law Unsuccessfully tried to conquer Scotland. Was defeated by William as a permanent institution for the purposes of raising taxes and race and ultimately Robert the Bruce Helped establish Parliament as a permanent institution for the purposes of raising taxes and reforming the laws of England In 1290 he issued the Edict of Expulsion which banned all Jews from England Requested that after death his body be boiled so the bones were clean and then carried at the head of every English Army into the Scots were conquered.
Conquest of Wales Prior to the actions of Edward, there had been numerous unsuccessful attempts by the Normans, King Henry II and other English Kings to conquer Wales Beginning in 1277, Edward reduced the territory of Wales through battle and after uprisings of the Welsh ultimately overran the entire country. Throughout the country Edward built new towns and castles to control the population Dafydd ap Gruffydd, the last independent ruler of Wales was dragged through the streets, Hanged and disemboweled, and had his body chopped into four pieces and spread throughout the island as a warning by edward With the Statute of Rhuddlan, English Common Law and taxes were imposed on the Welsh
The Model Parliament 1295 Called by Edward in 1295 to raise money for his planned wars against French and Scotland, the Model Parliament was one of the first elected bodies in English history and represented society as a whole and not merely the clergy Wars of Scottish Independence
History of England/Britain History of England/Britain
People In the History Tudor (1485-1603) Henry VIII and the English Reformation Wars of Religion and Bloody Mary Elizabeth and the Defeat of the Spanish Armada Henry VII (1485-1509) Edward VI(1547-1553 Stuart (1603-1714) Joint monarchy Beginning of American Colonization English Civil War and Interregnum Glorious Revolution Act of Union Hanoverian(1714-1901) Loss of American Colonies Industrial Revolution Emergence as a major Continental Power Expansion of Empire into Africa and Asia Windsor (1901-Present) First and Second World Wars Cold War Creation of the Commonwealth and Loss of Empire
The Tudors Henry VII (1485-1509) After years of chaos, he reformed the royal finances by promoting trade, enforcing taxes, and avoiding war. Defeated Richard III (who died) at the Battle of Bosworth and became King of England
Henry VII (1509-1547) After criticizing Martin Luther and defending the Catholic Church, he ultimately launched the English Reformation After criticizing Martin Luther and defending the Catholic Church, he ultimately launched the English Reformation
Act of Supremacy (1534) Act of Supremacy, (1534) English act of Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as the “Supreme Head of the Church of England.” The act also required an oath of loyalty from English subjects that recognized his marriage to Anne Boleyn.
Dissolution of the Monasteries (1535-1541) Given the authority by the Suppression of Religious Houses Acts in 1535 and 1539, Henry oversaw the destruction of over 500 monasteries and religious houses and their Lands and wealth taken over by the crown. Henry’s action were widely unpopular in the North of England and led to several uprisings that were ultimately put down.
Laws in Wales Act (1535-1542) the Laws in Wales Acts placed wales under English jurisdiction and created a single state. While the act did allow the Welsh to have representation in Parliament, it also declared English to be the only language of the court. Only in 1993 were the language requirements repealed.
Crown of Ireland Act (1542) In 1542, the Irish Parliament created the title of King of Ireland for Henry VIII and his successors.
Edward VI(1547-1553) First English Monarch raised as a Protestant Under his short reign, Thomas Cranmer (Archbishop of Canterbury) instituted more Protestant reforms such as an end to clerical celibacy, stained glass windows, and the Latin Mass. Cranmer also created the Book of Common Prayer which Became terminally ill and died at the age 15 while trying to prevent Mary from becoming Queen. Edward first declared that females were unworthy and unable to become rulers of england and then changed his mind and declared his cousin Lady Jane Grey successor (later killed by Queen Mary.)
Mary (1553-1558) First woman to successfully claim the throne of England she ruled from 1553-1558 Lost Calais (the Last British territory in France in 1558 but extended control over Ireland Reestablished Roman Catholicism as the official religion of England and attempted to undo the English Reformation Earned the nickname “Blood Mary” because she had over 300 dissenters burned at the stake (including Thomas Cranmer) beginning in 1555 Died without producing an heir in 1558 and was succeeded by her half sister Elizabeth
Elizabeth (1558-1603) One of the most important monarchs in English History “The Virgin Queen” Extended English control over Ireland through Plantations Created a moderate Protestant Church of England which kept traditional elements of the Catholic Church (such as the sign of the cross) Helped England become a major world power with the defeat of the Spanish Armada and colonial exploration
Defeat of the Spanish Armada (15880 One of the greatest military victories in English History, Philip II of Spain (the deceased Mary I’s husband) wanted to invade England and overthrow Queen Elizabeth during the Anglo-Spanish War (15888-1604). OF the 130 ships to set sail for Spain, ⅓ did not return. “I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king-and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain
The Stuarts (1603-1649, 1660-1714) James VI of Scotland (1567-1625) and I of England (1603-1625) Began the Stuart Dynasty after the Death of Elizabeth when he jointly ruled as the King of BOTH Scotland (1567-1625) and England (1603-1625) Made peace with Spain in 1604 Authorized the King James Bible Opposing further reforms to the Church of England, he oppressed Puritans and Separatists Believed in the Divine Right of Kings and ruled accordingly
James and the Divine Right of Kings Separatists: Believed that the Church of England was beyond repair and they needed to separate Puritans: Thought that it was still possible to purify the Church of England from within
The Short Parliament (April 13-May 5, 1640) Called by Charles to raise money for his fight against the Scots, the short Parliament was more interested in airing of grievances and placing limits on the King before raising revenues. After 3 weeks, Charles once again dissolved Parliament.
The Long Parliament (November 3, 1640-48/1660) Beginning November 3, 1640 Charles once again was forced to call Parliament to help fund his expenses and war against the Scots Constantly Battled with the King and refused to dissolve itself Parliament They created laws in their own favor to balance the power of the King Sought to impeach the Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud because of his opposition to Puritans. He was imprisoned in 1641 and executed in 1645
The Triennial Act (February 15, 1642) The English Civil War (1642-1649) Pride’s Purge December 6, 1648) & The Rump Parliament (1648-1653) The Triennial Act (February 15, 1642) Required that Parliament be called at least once every 3 years. Shall not be dissolved unless it be by Act of Parliament to be passed for that purpose The English Civil War (1642-1649) Cavaliers: Supporters of the King House of Lords Aristocracy Church Officials Roundheads: Supporters of Parliament House of Commons Puritans Pride’s Purge December 6, 1648) On Thomas Pride and the New Model Army forcibly removed all the members of the Long Parliament who were not aligned with the Army and remained loyal to the crown trying to reach a negotiated settlement. The Rump Parliament (1648-1653) With roughly 210 out of the original 470 members, the Rump Parliament radically transformed England
Interregnum (1649-1660) Adam Smoith (1723-1790) Father of Capitalism/Economics The enlightenment (1776) On supply and Demand On the Division of Labor On the Invisible Hand=Laissez-faire Queen Victoria (1819-1901) Reigned as the Queen of England from 1837-1901 (63, 216 is the longest Reign of an English Monarch unless Elizabeth II is still in office September 11,2015 Empress of India (1876-1901)
Benjamin Disraeli, Conservative (1868, 1874-1880) Reform Bill of 1867 expanding the voting population by 88% Gave extra seats to large cities All male homeowners and most male’s who rented could vote 1875: Public Health Act created a modern sewer system in big cities and established a sanitary code 1875 Pure Food and Drug Act 1875 licenses were only given to adult chimney sweeps 1878 Employers and workmen Act let workers sue for broken contracts
William Gladstone, Liberal (1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886, 1892-1894) Education Act of 1870 divided the country into school district with local control Ballot Act of 1872 created secret ballots Redistribution Act of 1885 created Electoral districts with nearly equal Populations wanted to lower tariffs Civil Service exams for many Government jobs 1869: Irish Catholics didn’t have to ay taxes to support the Anglican Church in Ireland 1870: Irish Land Act prevented Absentee landowners from evicting Irish Catholic tenants without compensation 1872: University Test Act on Anglicans could attend British Universities 1884 Reform Bill added 6 million to the voting rolls. Agricultural workers.
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