Neurology tutorial: Blackouts

yasmin.dix17
Flashcards by yasmin.dix17, updated more than 1 year ago
yasmin.dix17
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Undergraduate Neurology Flashcards on Neurology tutorial: Blackouts, created by yasmin.dix17 on 03/02/2015.

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Question Answer
What is a non-epileptic attack? "Pseudo-seizure" Psychological response to something (e.g. anxiety attack) Quite common Responsive
Seizure vs. syncope: Post-ictal confusional state? Syncope: Slightly dazed - Confused about what just happened - Still recognise people Seizure: More prolonged - Fail to recognise people/surroundings
Seizure vs. syncope: Tonic-clonic jerking? Seizure: reliable hx of only lasting 1-2mins Syncope: tonic-clonic jerking in 70% - Only lasts 15-20 seconds, but will feel longer to the observer
Seizure vs. syncope: tongue biting? Tongue biting (especially lateral border) present after: 20% of seizures 1-2% of syncope But given how much more common syncope is, this doesn't help distinguish
Seizure vs. syncope: incontinence? More common in seizures but still quite common in syncope: not helpful to distinguish
Define: Seizure Any clinical manifestation of abnormal electrical brain activity Disturbance of: consciousness, behaviour, emotion, motor function, sensation
Define: Epilepsy A tendency towards seizures At least two unprovoked seizures at least 24 hours apart
What are the three types of partial (focal) seizures? - Simple partial (focal seizure without loss of consciousness) - aka. aura - Complex partial (focal seizure with loss of consciousness) - Secondary generalised seizure (a partial seizure that develops into a generalised)
Typical simple partial seizure "Rising" feeling in stomach Fully alert and aware (can describe after) Funny smell (e.g. burning) Funny taste (e.g. metallic) Deja vu Intense fear Focal motor symptoms (unilateral)
Typical complex partial seizure Vacant, blank, staring into space (NOT an absence seizure) Stereotyped (repetitive) movements (e.g. rubbing)
5 types of generalised seizures - Tonic-clonic - Tonic - Atonic/drop attacks (rare) - Myoclonic - Absence (true are very rare)
Tonic-clonic seizures Two phases: Tonic: body goes stiff, fall to floor Clonic: limbs jerk
Myoclonic seizures Myoclonus normal in some situations (falling asleep, startle) Myoclonic seizure may be single jerk, e.g. when holding something
Absence seizures Much briefer than complex partial seizures Children and adolescents: not diagnosed as new onset in adults In Medicine, term is used to refer to a specific EEG pattern
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