Attachment - Psychology - Flash Cards

Jessica Göbel
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Megan Price
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Jessica Göbel
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A -level revision for the attachment unit of psychology

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Question Answer
What is attachment type A? (include details on the description, and the type of behavior shown) Insecure-avoidant. They do not seek contract with the attachment figure when distressed. Such children are likely to have a caregiver who is insensitive and rejecting of their needs. Indifferent to the primary care giver being there or not. Independent physically and emotionally.
What is attachment type B? (include details on the description, and the type of behavior shown) Securely Attached. Majority of the results. They use the attachment figure as a safe base to explore the environment and seek the attachment figure in times of distress (Main, & Cassidy). Easily soothed by caregiver.
What is attachment type C? (include details on the description, and the type of behavior shown) Insecure-resistant. The child will commonly exhibit clingy and dependent behavior, but will be rejecting of the attachment figure when they engage in interaction. Fails to develop feelings of security. They are difficult to soothe and not comforted by PCG.
What does PDD stand for? (explain each step) Bowlby and Robertson Protest - includes kicking, screaming, crying and clinging to parent. Despair - calms down, but unresponsive to people and its environment. Detachment - superficial contact with others. Shows lack of interest in parent's coming home.
Bowlby's Theory. Attachment is adaptive. Innate. Gives better chance of survival and the passing of genes. Care-giving is also adaptive. Social releases encourage care-giving. Sensitive Period. A critical time to form attachments with primary care giver. Secure Base. Uses the parent to explore from, and to go back to when distressed. Mono-trophy and hierarchy, one special attachment with primary care giver. Other attachments are important for social development, but not as important. Internal Working Model - links into the continuity hypothesis where this behavior and ideas stay with you until adulthood.
at what age and characteristics are in the pre-attachment stage? 0-3 months At about 6 weeks, infants begin to treat other humans differently from objects by smiling and gurgle at them.
at what age and characteristics are in the indiscriminate attachment phase? 3-7 months Infant can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people but is quite happy to be comforted by anyone.
what age and and characteristics are in the discriminate attachment phase? 7-9 months Infant distinguishes between carers and strangers and exhibits distress or separation anxiety when left alone (they have developed object permanence) and may be fearful of the strangers.
what age and characteristics are in the multiple attachment phase? 9 months + Attachments develop with other people (for example, grandparents or brothers and sisters), although the original attachment remains the strongest.
What is attachment type D? (include details on the description, and the type of behavior shown) Insecure-Disorganised. (Maine 1991) The infant is fearful of the attachment figure. This infant is in conflict as to whether he or she should seek or resist closeness.
at least two criticisms of Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation experiment. any 2 of these: Relationships rather than attachments may be under investigation. The scenario is unrealistic and may lack ecological validity. The ethics of inducing anxiety in the caregivers and infants may be questioned. The results cannot be generalized to cultures other than that of USA.
Describe Deprivation an existing attachment has been lost.
Describe Privation when an attachment has never been made. (Genie)
Give supporting evidence that child care is good for child development. any: can have a positive influence on the child's cognitive development provided it is good quality and provides intellectual stimulation. (Scarr 1998) children who had experienced care in day nurseries had better verbal and mathematical abilities than the others. There was even a positive correlation between length of time spent in day nurseries and cognitive ability (Broberg et al., 1997). Later on in life, children who have experienced day care become less aggressive and more sociable (Shea, 1981) and cope better with the new social interactions when they start attending school (Clarke-Stewart et al., 1994). there is more, but learn these bc easier
Give contradictory evidence of that day care has a positive affect on child development. Any: day care centers tend to be more aggressive (Cole and Cole, 1996). a study compared the cognitive ability of children whose mothers went to work either before or after their child was one year old. The findings showed that the cognitive ability of those children who started day care earlier was lower than that of the later starters (Baydar and Brooks-Gunn, 1991). are more but learn these bc easier
Give some mediating factor research towards daycare having a positive outcome on child development Any: Benefits are seen if the experience is more enriching than that which would have occurred at home. Conversely, harmful effects may occur if the quality of care is worse than home experiences (Bee, 1997). research that there was no difference in the amount of distress shown between high-level day care children (over 30 hours per week) and low-level day care children (under 10 hours per week) when the mother departed. (Clarke-Stewart et al. 1994) are others but learn these bc easier
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