Flashcards by harriet_baylis, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by harriet_baylis over 7 years ago


History Flashcards on Peacekeeping, created by harriet_baylis on 10/04/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
what treaty said that Italy would receive considerable territorial gains after the war if they won? treaty of london (1915)
why were italy's claims to territory made practically impossible during the treaty of versailles? because of wilsons 14 points
what territory did the treaty of london cover in terms of Italy? Dalmatian coast Adriatic sea South Tyrol a protectorate over albania
why did the treaty of london oppose wilsons 14 points? it clearly opposed the spirit of self determination
how did italy worsen their claims to territory in paris? in april 1919 the italian representatives presented additional demands to the Council of Four
what did italy's additional demands at paris consist of? the port of Fiume
why were italian representatives under intense pressure from home to produce a satisfactory treaty at paris? why was obtaining territory considered essential? economy damaged from war political problems and social unrest it would recover the economy and help strengthen the political system
why was there little sympathy felt towards italian demands? because of italy's association with germany at the start of war and too little consideration for their contribution to wwi
what two things were italy dissatisfied with at paris? the fact that the treaty of london would not be honoured the treatment of the italian delegation received during the conference as a 'lesser power'
what nation were not allowed to take part in the negotiations leading to the drafting of versailles treaty? germany austria bulgaria hungary turkey
which nation did not attend the paris conference? russia
which nations formed a Supreme Council? USA france britain japan italy
what was the supreme council later replaced with? the Council of Four
once germany had signed versailles, what did the Conference of Ambassadors supervise? the other peace treaties; st germain with austria trianon with hungary neuilly with bulgaria sevres with turkey
what were all the treaties based on? the versailles treaty; all defeated countries had to disarm pay reparations lose territory
what did article 232 of versailles address? germany had to pay war reparations
what was included in versailles that addressed treaty of london? compensation for the violation of treaty of london, leading to destruction of belgium
why did france want to push for germany's costly reparations? they were worried about a quick german recovery and remilitarisation
why did britain not want germany's reparations to be too much? because a german economic recovery would help British balance of trade
what were US views on german reparations? they were more in line with those of the british and helped moderate french demands
what was the main dilema when discussing german reparations? how much did germany theoretically owed and how much they could actually pay
how did germany pay and why did they have to pay in this way? the gold reserves in the german central bank were insufficient and so they would also have to pay with goods like coal, cattle and fishing boats
what happened to the saarland? it was put under the administration of league of nations for 15 years and then inhabitant would decide whether they wanted to return to germany
whilst the league administered the saarland where did the extracted coal go to? france
how was poland created at versailles? it would be created from upper silesia, poznan and west prussia
why did poland need to be economically independent? to consolidate its position between germany and USSR
what happened to the german port of danzig? it became a free city under the mandate of league of nations
what happened to east prussia and why? it was seperated from the rest of germany and was given to poland this would gurantee her access to sea, creating the polish corridor
what territories were given to belgium? malmedy eupen
how gained the german territory of north schleswig? denmark
how was the treaty of brest-litovsk addressed at versailles all territory given to germany from russia from the treaty was returned e.g estonia, latvia, lithuania were made independent states in line with self-determination principle
what additional measure was put in place to further hinder germany's economic recovery? germany was not allowed to unite with austria (anschluss)
what happened to germany's overseas colonies? they were taken, and became mandates of the league of nations
two places germany lost trading rights with china egypt
why did versailles treaty prioritise disarmament? because the arms race had been a key factor in starting world war i
what happened to german wartime weapons they were destroyed
what was the german army reduced to no submarines, air force, armed cars or tanks 6 battleships 100,000 men
in the east of the rhine what did germany have to respect? a 50km exclusion zone (no german troops allowed)
2 points explaining german reaction to versailles betrayal of the 14 points a diktat (dicatated peace)
what was germany's main objection and what did this become known as? article 231: 'blank cheque' for reparations known as the 'war guilt clause'
what did the germans demand after seeing the terms of the versailles treaty they demanded a revision
who were the november criminals? those who had signed the armistice in 1918
what occured socially in germany after having been presented with the versailles terms political turmoil
who signed versailles for germany and when? 28th june 1919 president ebert's government
why were many of the french dissatisfied with versailles and what were the consequences for clemenceau they said it had not crippled germany enough to secure long term security for france clemenceau was the object of bitter criticism, lost election in january 1920
how did the US respond to versailles? US congress refused to ratify it and join league for fear of being dragged into european conflicts in the future
what did the italians argue about the outcome of versailles they had won the war but lost the peace
what was britains response to verailles? many thought it was too hard on germany
what did treaty of germain imply? formal austrian recognition of establishment of czechoslovakia as an independent republic and of its annexation of bohemia and moravia
why did france promote the annexation of bohemia and moravia by austria? despite this including some 3 million german citizens france thought that czechoslovakia would be stronger with these regions
what was contemplated in germain in terms of serbs? yugoslavia would be established - an independent state for serbs, slovenes and croats
what did the creation of yugoslavia result in (for austria) loss of slovenia, bosnia and herzegovina
what did poland gain from austria-hungary in germain? galicia
what did italy gain in germain south tyrol, trentino and istria
what did romania gain in germain translyvania
in germain, what was austria banned to do? banned to unite with any other nation without the league's permission
in germain, what was austria made to do? accept certain responsibility for war damage so had arms limitations and some forms of reparations
what were the 3 main issues austria had with germain? treaty overruled self determination principle forbade union with germany! put austrian nationals under italian and czech rule
why did germain severely affect austria's economy? the loss of industrially rich regions to czech and poland the loss of more than 15 million citizens weakened austria
why was bulgaria treated as a defeated nation of wwi in neuilly treaty? they had joined wwi in 1915 in support of central powers
what was the toughest clause in neuilly? bulgaria lost access to aegen sea
why did greece benefit from bulgarias weakening in neuilly? macedonia and west thrace returned to greece
2 other reasons as to how bulgaria was weakened in neuilly? bulgaria recognised independence of yugoslavia and their boundaries were adjusted clauses on reparations and arms limitations
what did the treaty of trianon mainly address? hungary's formal acceptance of disintegration of austro-hungarian empire
why was trianon signed in 1920 a year after germain? political unrest in hungary establishment of communist state under leader of hungarian communist party (collapsed in august 1919)
why were there bitter complaints amongst hungarians about trianon? the newly formed hungary had lost much territory in comparison to the Kingdom of Hungary more than 3 million magyars had been put under foreign rule
what did czech gain from trianon? ruthenia and slovakia
who joined yugoslavia in trianon? croatia and slovenia
what were imposed on hungary in trianon? reparations and arms limitations
after having entered wwi on the allied side, why did romania make territorial gains from treaties? allied interest in romania becoming a buffer state between russia and the dardanelles - to prevent russian acces to the Med sea
what did the treaty of sevres address? disintegration of ottoman empire in turkey
what were the aims of peacemakers in Sevres? to set up new borders for Turkey in line with self-determination principle to make certain that turkey would be unable to cause fresh confronations in balkans
what happened to turkish influence in north africa during sevres? turkish control over north africa and arab territories ended britain gained influence in the region by controlling mandates in Palestine, Iraq and france controlled lebanon and syria
how did greece benefit from sevres? gained east thrace, symrna and many aegen islands
what clause of sevres outraged the turks? the contemplated a plebiscite to take place in 5 years in smyrna
what country officially became british in sevres treaty? cyprus
who were germany's shares of turkish petroleum company given to? france
what was given to italy in sevres? dodecanese islands rhodes adalia
what 2 places were to become independent states in sevres? armenia kurdistan
what was the remaing turkish territory in europe after sevres? costantinople
under sevres what happened regarding troops? british, french and italian troops remained in turkey
what 2 regions were put under supervision of international comission? dardanelles and bosporus straits
did turkey have to limit army after sevres and pay reparations? 50,000 men and reparations
why was sevres hard to implement? nationalist opposition aimed to repudiate sevres and prevent disintegration of turkish-speaking regions of empire
what did nationalisy opposition to sevres end in? war between greece and turkey turkey won
why did sevres have to be revised with the treaty of lausanne? greco-turkish war led to abdication of greek king and turkish sultanate. imposing such harsh terms on turkey, allies had weakened sultan, whose regime guaranteed observance of treaty
what were the 4 main revisions in lausanne from sevres? - east thrace returned to turkey - turkish sovereignity over bosporus and dardanelles (but still demilitarised) - withdrawal of foreign troops from turkey - reparations and arms limitations removed
in treaty of lausanne what did turkey do in return? renounced all claims on territories outside its new boundaries guaranteed rights of minorities
how much did lausanne reduce tensions between turkey and greece? why? little clashes in cyprus were to come
what group were disappointed with terms of lausanne, why? arabs hoped for support for independence after helping against turkey in wwi
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