General Digital Use & Development

bthnyrose
Flashcards by bthnyrose, updated more than 1 year ago
bthnyrose
Created by bthnyrose almost 5 years ago
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Undergraduate Developmental (Digital Media & Child Development) Flashcards on General Digital Use & Development, created by bthnyrose on 04/21/2015.
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Media Usage Facts Ofcom (2013) research report shows that 99% of children have access to television in the home 3-15 year olds watch on average 15.4 hours of TV a week] 12 – 15 year olds spend as long on the internet as watching TV Over 90% of 12 – 15 year olds have a social networking account. Question of vulnerability
How many ensure restricted access? Lenhart & Madden (2007) 48% of teenagers visit social networking sites at least once a day (22% more than once daily). 66% - ensure access is restricted 44% - still isn't restricted
Issues within social media use: (Extremes of normal behaviour) Privacy concerns Cyberbullying Internet Addiction Concurrent sleep deprivation Gap in technical knowledge between parents and youth
Advantages of social media use Opportunities for community engagement Support with projects & homework from peers Access to health information 'Meet; new people/make friends
Key areas of risk Peer to peer Inappropriate content Lack of understanding online privacy Outside influences of third party advertising groups
Social Media & Self-esteem/Depression Valkenburg et al. (2006). O’Keefe & Clarke-Pearson (2011)
Valkenburg et al. (2006). Survey of 881 Dutch adolescents (10 – 19 years) Positive feedback on their profiles by networked ‘friends’ enhanced social self-esteem and well being Negative feedback decreased self-esteem and well-being
O'Keefe & Clark-Pearson (2011) ‘facebook depression’ is now recognised by researchers Shown by children/adolescents spending excessive time social networking Intensity of online world triggers depression Risk of social isolation, substance abuse, aggression, unprotected sex…
Comparing cyberbullying and face-to-face bullying Bullying: Aggressive, repetitive, intentional and power imbalance Cyberbullying: power imbalance is less in evidence (interaction can be more easily terminated?? Or is it infact more difficult to escape the intrusion of cyberbullying?) Power can be social, psychological or physical in nature Repetition more difficult to define in cyberbullying (e.g. one embarrassing picture posted online may be viewed by hundreds of people)
Differences between cyber-bullying and bullying (Smith, 2012) (1) degree of technological expertise; (2) indirect and can be anonymous (3) doesn’t seem victims reaction (4) the variety of bystander roles in cyberbullying is more complex than in most traditional bullying (5) cyberbullying does not give perpetrator power like normal bullying (6) the breadth of the potential audience is increased, (7) it is difficult to escape from cyberbullying (there is ‘no safe haven’), as the victim may be sent messages to their mobile or computer
Overlap bullying/cyberbullying Regarding cybervictims, Livingstone et al. (2011) - found that the biggest risk factor of being bullied online was to bully others online. - two-way interaction where children bully others and are bullied themselves. - This was especially seen between girls.
Why do children cyberbully? Desire to inflict harm and fear Revenge for being bullied face-to-face ‘get back at someone’ To display superior technology skills ‘for fun’. Do not empathize Slonje & Smith (2008) – cyberbullies do not see the impact of their act directly, or the fear in the victims eyes
Motives for Cyberbullying Varjas et al, 2010 Qualitative study, 20 participants, 15-19yrs, interviews these motives could be categorized as either internal - revenge, boredom, jealousy, trying out a new persona or redirecting feelings; or external - no consequences, non-confrontational
Psychological research & cyberbullying -Highlights risks & opportunities children are exposed too - Provides info' on extent of behaviour and associated risks - NATURE of cyberbullying and WHY it occurs
Face-to face bullying 1/6 encounter f2f bullying once a week (Rigby, 1997) Suggest more boys than girls (Rigby & Slee, 1991) increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms in victims (Roland, 2002) - expressions of bullying or consequence?
Consequences By technology, verbal and psychological bullying has more negative long-term effects (Reid, Monsen & Rivers, 2004) Much wider audience to be aware of the incident - Emails forwarded -Websites visited - Abusive words/statements not erased, rememberance 'more concrete' - Anonymous bullying
Prevention - Raising awareness Schools found to deny incidences of bullying (Besag, 1989) Some see bullying as 'right of passage' for children to develop, normal part of childhood (justifying it) 'Teachers cant do anything as they dont have phones themselves' (Campbell & Gardner, 2005)
Prevention - Supervision Location of computer at home is what parents need to consider (Pew, 2001) as it's a peer lifeline rather than practical tool Need power to control technology like they do with other things (eating habits, rules, play) (Snider, 2004)
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