Regulation of Blood Glucose

Harry Riley
Flashcards by Harry Riley, updated more than 1 year ago
Harry Riley
Created by Harry Riley over 5 years ago
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Flashcards on the regulation of blood glucose
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Question Answer
What is the group of cells which produce Insulin and Glucagon called? Islets of Langerhans
Which type of cells produce Glucagon? α Cells, these are larger than β cells.
Which type of cells produce insulin? β Cells, these are smaller than α cells.
What methods does insulin use to lower blood glucose. Increasing rate of absorption into cells. Increases rate of respiration. Increases glycogenesis Increases the conversion of glucose to fat
What methods does glucagon use to raise blood sugar levels? Activates an enzyme which converts glycogen to glucose. Increasing the rate of gluconeogenesis.
What is gluconeogenesis? The conversion of glycerol and amino acids into glucose.
What is glycogenesis? The conversion of glucose into glycogen.
What is glucagon? A hormone produced by the α cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas which bring round effects which increase the level of glucose in the blood.
What is insulin? A hormone produced in the β cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas which bring round effects which lower the level of glucose in the blood.
What is the secondary messenger model? A mechanism which uses two hormones to regulate a process such as blood glucose. The first hormone binds a receptor site which activates an enzyme to convert ATP into Cyclic AMP which acts as the secondary messenger which activates another enzyme to breakdown Glycogen into glucose.
Which type of diabetes is insulin independent? Type 2. This type of diabetes is usually down to the glycoprotein receptors on body cells becoming less responsive to insulin.
Which type of diabetes is insulin dependent? Type 1. This type is down to the body being unable to produce insulin which could be down to an autoimmune response.
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