Were the peace treaties of 1919-23 fair?

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Flashcards by marniearose, updated more than 1 year ago
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History Flashcards on Were the peace treaties of 1919-23 fair?, created by marniearose on 05/25/2015.

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Question Answer
What were the aims of France at T.O.V? 1. George Clemenceau wanted Germany to be punished and wanted reparations from Germany. 2. Clemenceau wanted the Rhineland to be handed to France and Alsace Lorraine to be returned. 3. Large areas of France had been destroyed due to the war. They wanted Germany to be blamed for war-guilt and some even wanted Germany to be totally destroyed.
What were the aims of Britain and the T.O.V? 1) Britain had not suffered to the degree that the French did. 2) The great war costed 5,700,000 a day, Britain borrowed a lot of money and had to now pay it back. They payed an enormous cost for victory. 3) Britain expected Germany would therefor, have to pay for the effect of war. 4) The prime minister David Lloyd George, promised to "squeeze Germany until the pipped squeak". 5) But when David Lloyd George got to Versailles he adopted a very different approach- he wanted Germany to be punished but not too hard, so they could recover.
What did the USA want at Versailles? 1) Did not suffer any damage during the war. 2) American solider only arrived in Europe in spring 1918, so Woodrow Wilson arrived in Europe in December 1918 without any scores to settle with Germany. 3) Wilson wanted peaces so he came up with his 14 points. (L.O.N) 4) Wilson believed in self-determination, this meant that people could run their own affairs. He objected to Italy taking over the Adriatic Coast.
What were the aims of Italy at TOV? 1) The Italian government did not join the war until 1915. Britain and France signed the Adriatic Coat of the balkans as far south as Albania and parts of the Greek coast. 2) Italy had lost 460,000 soldiers in the war 3) Italy was in debt to the USA. For most italians it was a disaster. 4) The Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando arrived at Versailles expecting Allies to honour the promises that they had made in the treaty of London.
What was Japans aims at The TOV 1) supported allies throughout war and expected some kind of a reward. 2) The Japanese wanted Manchuria which was part of Northern China.
What was the German reaction to the The Treaty Of Versailles? Signed on the 28th of June. The Germans were not allowed to attend. They were horrified when they saw the terms, they thought Wilson was following his 14 points and they saw no sign of self-determination.
What did the Germans loose in terms of land? 10% of their land- Alsace Lorraine was given to France. The Polish corridor was created to give Poland a way out of the Baltic, cutting Germany in two. Germany lost land to Belgium, Denmark and Czechoslovakia.
What did the Germans loose in terms of Colonies? All German colonies were handed over to Britain and France to look after under the league of nations. And were made mandates until they could become independent.
What did Germany loose in terms of Armed Forces? Army reduced to 100,000 men and conscription was banned, the navy was reduced to 6 battle ships and submarines were banned. The airforce would be completely destroyed.
What happened to the Rhineland? demilitarised, no weaponry or soldiers were allowed within 30 m of the river. The allies would occupy it for 15 years.
What happened to the Saar? Occupied for 15 years and France was able to mine coal in those years.
What happened with reparations? Germany had to pay for the damaged caused during the war. in 1921 it would be decided that Germany would pay 6,600,000,000.
What was decided in terms of war guilt? Germany had to accept war guilt alone- clause 231
Why and what were the Victors upset about after the Treaties decides? France was not allowed to occupy the Rhineland, because Lloyd George thought this would antagonise the Germans. Woodrow Wilson did not get freedom of the seas. Lloyd George wanted to maintain Britain's naval supremacy. Lloyd George was upset that the public had forced him to accept harsher treatment of the Germans than he had wanted. Italy was not given the Adriatic Coast, that had been promised in the secret treaty of London in 1915, because Woodrow wilson would not agree to the creation of the Italian empire. Japan was not allowed to occupy Manchuria, it was given to the former German territories in China.
What happened at the treaty of Saint Germain? Signed between the Allies and Austria on the 10th of September 1919. The terms were as followed: 1) Austro- Hungarian empire was broken up, the Austrian republic was regarded as representing the former empire; 2) Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia were declared as independent. 3) Austria handed over Eastern Glacia, the Trentino, South Tirol, Trieste and Istria. 4) The Austrian army was limited to 30 k men and reparations were to be payed for thirty years. 5) The union between Austria and German was forbidden, except with the agreement of the council of the league of nations.
What was the Treaty of Trianon? A treaty signed between the allies and Hungary on June 4th 1920. It was delayed by more than a year, because of a war between Hungary and its neighbours. Which led to the invasion by Romania. The terms of the treaty were as follows: Hungary lost 3/4 of its territory and 2/3 of it population. Slovakia was given to Czeckoslovakia and Western Hungary was given to Austria. Croatia and Slavonia were given to Yugoslavia and Translyvania was given to Romania. The Hungarian army was limited to 35 k men. The Hungarians agreed to pay part of the Austrian reparations. The Hungarian government agreed to hand over war criminals.
What was The Treaty of Neuilly? signed between the allies and Bulgaria on November 27th 1919. 1) Bulgaria lost some land to Yugoslavia and the Adriatic coast to Greece but gained some from Turkey. 2) Bulgaria had to pay 100,000,000 in reparations. 3) The Bulgarian army was limited to 20,000 men.
What was The Treaty of Sevres? The treaty was signed between the Allies and Turkey August 10th 1920. It had been delayed by war: the treaty agreed that: 1) Arabia and Armenia become independent. 2) Syria becoming a French mandate and mesopotamia and Palestine became British mandates. 3) Smyrna was to be controlled by Greece for five years and then a referendum to decide its future. 4) Rhodes and the Dodecanese islands were given to Italy. 5) Thrace and all other turkish islands in the Aegean were given to Greece. 6) Britain gained Cyprus 7) the Straits became international and the territory on either side was demilitarised. 8) The allies would be able to station troops in turkey to ensure that the treaty obeyed.
What was The Treaty of Lausanne? The treaty was signed on the 24th of July 1923. 1) In the Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey recovered some territory from Greece, but gave up all claims yo non- turkish territory lost at the end of the war. 2) All claims for reparations from Turkey were dropped.
What was the immediate impact of the peace treaty on Germany? 1) November 1918 Germany surrendered. They had no right to take part in any discussion at the peace conference. 2) Had to accept what the allies decided. 3) Suffered worse than any of the other major countries, except Russia. 4) Two million German soldiers had been killed and the German economy had been ruined by the blockade set up by the allies.
Why was the Weimar Republic weak? 1. Conditions in Germany 1918/19 were very bad. There was an attempt for a Spartacist revolution, who were communists. 2. This was only put down by Frei Korps, gangs of ex-soldiers who who roamed the streets of Berlin in uniform. 3. The politician who had signed the Armistice were called the November Criminals, by Hitler, who joined the German workers party, a small extreme group in Bavaria, in 1919. The Government became very unpopular and from 1919 onwards there were increasing numbers of murder and violence. Many soldiers did not believe that the army had actually been defeated, as Germany had surrendered before it had been invaded. Some wanted to fight on, but the odds against Germany had been very long indeed, with Br, Fr and the USA all on the other side. When they returned home they were treated like heroes. Most people had expected that the T Treaty would not be too severe so that Germany would be able to recover. They believed that Germany would be treated according to the terms of the 14 points. The terms were harsher that anyone had anticipated.
Continue of why the Weimar Republic was weak. The allies hoped that this would stop a strong government from coming to power. In fact, it meant that all German governments were weak and unable to make decisions.
How did reparations affect Germany? 1) on may 1st 1921 Germany were presented with a 6,600,000,000, to be paid in the next 30 years. 2) Germans had to sell their property in allied countries. 3) German had to hand over all merchant ships over 1600 tonnes, half of those between 800- 1600 tonnes and one quarter of her fishing fleet. 4) She was to build 200,000 tonnes of shipping for the allies in the next 5 years. 5) Large quantities of coal were to be handed over to France, Belgium, and Italy for the next 10 years.
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