Chapter 8 US History 1

Brianna Welch
Flashcards by Brianna Welch, updated more than 1 year ago
Brianna Welch
Created by Brianna Welch almost 6 years ago


high school sophomore History (US History 1 H) Flashcards on Chapter 8 US History 1, created by Brianna Welch on 06/11/2015.

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Question Answer
Battle of New Orleans - Jacksons men struck in and stopped B. Advance - B. attacked twice and were thrown back - Jan. 8, 1815 all - out charge on B. --> 2000 Killed - B. Sailed away - The Battle of New Orleans was the last battle fought in the War of 1812 between the British and the Americans. • British force was commanded by General Edward Pakenham • Americans were under the command of General Andrew Jackson > battle took place at the Plains of Chalmette a few miles from New Orleans.
XYZ Affair - President John Adams wanted to avoid a war with France, so he sent officials to France to discuss the rights of neutral nations. - Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, the French foreign minister, sent three secret agents who insisted that America give a loan to France and pay a bribe. - President Adams would not do what France wanted. - When he told the public in 1798, he addressed the Frenchmen as X, Y, and Z, hence the name of this affair. - People hated the XYZ Affair, saying, "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!" America soon quickly declined France's offer.
Adams - Onis Treaty - US Gov. pays its own citizens 5M for damages Am. shippers claimed ag. Spain for S. interference with Am. commerce during Nap. Wars - The Adams-Onís Treaty (also called the Florida treaty) was a treaty between Spain and the United States of America in 1819 > This treaty led to Spain giving the state of Florida to the USA. It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries. - The treaty was considered a triumph of American diplomacy • Florida had become a burden to Spain. It could not afford to send settlers or garrisons. - The treaty was signed in Washington, DC on February 22, 1819 - It was ratified in Madrid, Spain on October 24, 1820 - The treaty actually went into effect on February 22, 1821 - Madrid decided to cede the territory of Florida to the United States - This was in exchange for settling the boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas - The treaty established the boundary of U.S. territory - It recognized the US's claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean - In exchange the U.S. paid residents' clai
Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase was a land purchase made by United States president Thomas Jefferson in 1803 - He bought the Louisiana territory from France, which was being led by Napoleon Bonaparte at the time, for 15,000,000 USD • At first the men sent to France were allowed to spend up to $10,000,000 USD in order to buy New Orleans and, if possible, the west bank of the Mississippi River - But then the French government said that for five million more dollars they would sell all of the Louisiana territory. - Thomas Jefferson approved the deal and used his constitutional power to sign treaties to buy the land. - Napoleon sold the land because he was desperate for money and he was afraid of losing his North American territories to the British Thomas Jefferson took this as an opportunity to make America larger, even if it meant going against his republican principles of only doing exactly what the Constitution said he could do (because nothing in the Constitution specifically said that he could buy the land). - The purchase added 827,000 square miles and doubled the size of the U.S.
Treaty of Ghent • Peace discussions b/w Am & B 1814 (August) - Signed on Dec. 24, 1814 - Provided a return for the conditions that existed before war - Neither side gained or lose anything - Ratified Feb. 4, 1815 by Senate The Treaty of Ghent was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom. - It was signed on 24 December 1814 in the Flemish city of Ghent. - The treaty restored the borders of the two countries to the line before the beginning of the war. - The treaty was ratified by Parliament on 30 December 1814. - It was signed into law by the Prince Regent (the future King George IV). - An American army under Andrew Jackson scored a major victory at the Battle of New Orleans in early January 1815. - The Treaty was not in effect until it was ratified by the U.S. Senate (unanimously) in February 1815
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions These resolutions were passed by the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 and were authored by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison respectively - The resolutions argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution. • The Virginia Resolution, authored by Madison, said that by enacting the Alien and Sedition Acts, Congress was exercising - Madison hoped that other states would register their opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts as beyond the powers given to Congress • The Kentucky Resolutions, authored by Jefferson, went further than Madison's Virginia Resolution and asserted that states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws • The ideas in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions became a precursor to John C. Calhoun's arguments about the power of states to nullify federal laws - However, during the nullification controversy of the 1830s, Madison rejected the legitimacy of nullification, and argued that it was not part of the Virginia pos
Republican Virtues The Revolutionists were especially concerned with the history of liberty in England and were primarily influenced by the "country party" (which opposed the Court Party that held power). C - The Country party shared some of the political philosophy of Whiggism as well as Tory critics in England which roundly denounced the corruption surrounding the "court" party in London centering on the royal court. - This approach produced a political ideology Americans called "republicanism", which was widespread in America by 1775 - "Republicanism was the distinctive political consciousness of the entire Revolutionary generation - J.G.A. Pocock explained the intellectual sources in America - American republicanism was centered on limiting corruption and greed - Virtue was of the utmost importance for citizens and representatives Revolutionaries took a lesson from anccient Rome, they knew it was necessary to avoid the luxury that had destroyed the Empire - A virtuous citizen was one that ignored monetary compensation and made a commitment to resist and eradicate corruption
Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening was a religious movement in the United States in the early and mid 1800s - It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, Edward Everett and Joseph Smith - It started in upstate New York, but spread to New England and the Midwest - During the Second Great Awakening, thousands of people gathered at large religious meetings called revivals - The people of the Second Great Awakening though they could bring about a Golden Age in America through religion - The Second Great Awakening led to new religious movements such as the Holiness Movement and the Mormons, and helped groups like the Methodist Church grow - The Second Great Awakening led to two movements in reform, that is, changing laws and behaviors to make society better - One of these was the Temperance Movement, which believed that drinking alcohol was not good for society. The other was abolition, which wanted to end slavery - They also formed political movements, which included the Liberty Party, the Free Soil Party and the Republican Party
Manifest Destiny - Manifest Destiny is a term for the attitude prevalent during the 19th century period of American expansion that the United States not only could, but was destined to, stretch from coast to coast. - This attitude helped fuel western settlement, Native American removal and war with Mexico.
Mountain Men - A mountain man was an explorer, trailblazer, and animal trapper in western North America. They were well known throughout the Rocky Mountains region - Famous mountain men include Jim Bridger, Kit Carson, and Jedediah Smith - By the mid 1800s the fur trade was no longer profitable - Furs were no longer popular in European fashion - Many of the mountain men settled into jobs as Army Scouts, wagon train guides and settlers through the lands which they had helped open up - Others, like William Sublette, opened up fort-trading posts along the Oregon Trail for the remaining fur traders and settlers heading west.
Trans - Appalachia In the early 19th century Americans who wanted to find a better life in the wilderness traveled several main roads over the Appalachians. Daniel Boone was hired by the Transylvania Company to cut the Wilderness Road. - Between 1790 and 1810, around 98,000 slaves, along with their owners, moved west into the region south of the Ohio River (the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 had forbidden slavery in states north of the Ohio). - By 1795, in Kentucky, 75,000 * By 1830, hundreds of thousands of settlers were in the region, which at that time consisted of Michigan Territory, and the new states of - Ohio, with 1,000,000 inhabitants, - Indiana, with almost 350,000 inhabitants, and - Illinois, with more than 150,000 inhabitants.
Great Plains in the early 1800s few people lived on the Great Plains - the Great Plains are in the middle of the US - people did not think the land was food for farming - it was very dry and flat - in 1862 the Homestead Act was passed - the government sold adults 160 acres of land for a small amount of money - if they could farm the land for five years, they could own it - a settler's home and land was called a homestead - many homesteaders came from the east coast, were farmland cost a lot - in the Great Plains, land was cheaper - there was a lot of land to buy in the Great Plains - African Americans also wanted to start farms - many African Americans were poor - they faced prejudice and violence after the civil war - they started their own towns in Kansas - African Americans were called Exodusters, after a book in the bible that tells the story of how people escaped slavery - settlers had to learn how to farm on the Great Plains - the soil was held together by grass roots - it was called sod - settlers were called sodbusters because they had to break through the sod to pl
Tariff of 1828 - "Tariff of 1828" was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States. - It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy. - The major goal of the tariff was to protect industries in the northern United States which were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods by taxing them - The South, however, was harmed directly by having to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce, and indirectly because reducing the exportation of British goods to the U.S. made it difficult for the British to pay for the cotton they imported from the South - he reaction in the South, particularly in South Carolina, would lead to the Nullification Crisis that began in late 1832. - The tariff marked the high point of U.S. tariffs. It was approached, but not exceeded, by the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 - The 1828 tariff was part of a series of tariffs that began after the War of 1812
Monroe Doctrine 1. w. hemisphere --> no longer open to further colonization by Euro. powers 2. any attempt of those powers to extend their political system to any portion of the Am. continents would be considered unfriendly to the US 3. the US wouldn't meddle with Euro. policies 4. Europe must not disturb the political status of the Rep. on this side of the ocean - difíant warning to Euro. powers - US did not have the power to enforce it - only hope was for it to coincide with B. foreign policy - The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. foreign policy regarding European countries in 1823 - It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention - The Monroe Doctrine was a foreign policy proclaimed by the United States in 1823 during the presidency of President James Monroe. - It said that European powers do not belong in The Americas. - For example, it would have been against the Monroe Doctrine for Spain to try to take back its colonies in South America.
Era of Good Feelings * James Monroe - Takes office - Well received --> when he toured N & West - Term in office --> An era with out political parties - Fed. & Rep. disappear --> fall apart in squab. fractions - soon turns into an era of bad feelings due to the hot pursuit of presidency by several self - seeking "republicans" - Monroe drifted with the times
Acquiring Florida US always wanted Florida - 1818 Fed. Gov. ordered Gen. Jacksons to protect S & W settlers against I. attacks for E. FL. - Told he could follow I. raiding parties back to Spanish F.L --> Chased I's across E. FL. & captured Pensacola & St. Marks --> Also executed 2 Englishmen who sue. supp. arms to I's - When Jackson went back to TN --> turned FL into a conquered province - Made him a hero in W. embarrassed gov. --> Could have caused a war with Spain & England --> John Q. supported Jack. --> Everyone else wanted him to be censured President - Told Spain to control I's or sell FL to US --> Weak Spanish gov. could not control I's --> Spain sells FL to US
War of 1812 * War not fought for the reason declared - After peace treaty was signed, pep ace gave Americans nothing they'd fought for - US ready to build an Am. empire for liberty
War Hawks November 1811 congress meets - Demanded a firm defense of our Nat. rights - Leaders, had no or little experience in public affairs, but were bright "War Hawks" --> Henry Clay of KY, speaker of house --> John Calhoun of SC, pushed nation into war - They cared about Frontier of Am. west --> Wanted more land --> Western lands produced well enough for first people who formed there --> After a few years land could only produce with fertilizer, crop rotation & cultivation (<-- lots of labor & labor was scarce) - West was blocked by Indians who would not be pushed around --> They were due to people in G.B and Spain stirring them up * War Hawks made fiery speeches - Swept nation toward a war they were unprepared for by predicting canada would be taken by 1000 KY riflemen
British Blockade B. blockade = tighter - Trade drops to almost nothing generals had less success - In English channel; we captured 1300 B. ships - The small British North American squadron had difficulty at the beginning of the war in blockading the entire U.S. coast, faced by the need to convoy vessels against American privateers. - However, as additional ships were sent to North America in 1813, the Royal Navy was able to tighten the blockade and extend it, first to the coast south of Narragansett by November 1813 and to the entire American coast on May 31, 1814. - The British government, having need of American foodstuffs for its army in Spain, benefited from the willingness of the New Englanders to trade with them, so no blockade of New England was at first attempted Eventually, the U.S. government was driven to issue orders to stop illicit trading; this put only a further strain on the commerce of the country. - The overpowering strength of the British fleet enabled it to occupy the Chesapeake and to attack and destroy numerous docks and harbors.
Battle of Tipperanoe 1795 - 1809 - Indians of N.W gave up 48M acres of land & obeyed their treaties --> white settlers squatted on the Indian lands & attacked people they dispossessed Shawnee brothers - had enough - Tecumsen: politican & warrior - Tenskqatawd: religious leader, aka, Prophet - decided to form all I. Tribes from Canada to FL into a Confederacy --> would sell no more land and fight to keep white people out Gov. Harrison of Indian Territory --> persuaded other I's to make a treaty that took away Tecumsen's hunting grounds - Tecumseh demanded the lands back in a speech - promised gov. If US agrees he wouldn't buy any more land except with consent of I's and would join them against B. - Harrison doesn't except offer - on Nov 7, 1811 Harrison & men go to Tipperanoe
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