HSC 696 - Exam #2


chapters 7-10 and 14-18 (see chapter 6 in other set of cards)
Flashcards by sarah_walatka, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by sarah_walatka over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
most popular data collection technique surveys
collect data at 2 or more time periods longitudinal research
data collected at one point in time, across a population cross-sectional
cohort effect your life experiences will greatly affect how you view things (you are not the same as your parents were at your age)
pros and cons of cross sectional research (+): quick, easy, cheap (-): less telling of the "true nature" of a population; only shows what occurred at a single point in time
pros and cons of longitudinal research (+): provides a more accurate picture of a population (-): expensive, difficulty tracking subjects
research that uses quantitative terms to describe the degree to which variables are related correlational research
a comparison of the amount of variability between two variables correlational reseach
small r means what? large variance
do you want small or large variance? small variance; indicates a pattern means the data is more compact and similar
the correlation coefficient r
r always falls within what range? +/- 1
common variance shared between 2 variables r^2
how much error you will take significance
what kind of studies use correlations to gain insight into factors for future studies? relationship studies
what kinds of studies assess complex issues with a variety of factors using correlations (what variables are related to each other)? relationship studies
what are the benefits of relationship studies? cheaper and faster than experimental studies
what kind of studies have two variables that are highly related and can be used to make predictions (example?) prediction studies ex: can GRE predict grad school success
do prediction studies have IV and DVs? are they scientific? measurement based? no IV/DV; just used of variables as predictors highly scientific and measurement based
what is the difference between experimental and causal-comparative research? C-C does not have manipulation of variables
what kind of study has observation of differences between groups to see why conditions exist or why something happened? ...describes conditions which already exist?... attempts to determine causes? C-C
what kind of research starts with the effect, then investigates the cause? (retrospective approach) C-C
what are the limitations of C-C research? - the IV has occurred - interpreting results must be done carefully - cause and effect can never really be known unless we do experimental (think butterfly effect)
how do you conduct C-C research? 1. select 2 groups differing on one IV (experimental and control or comparison groups) 2. compare then on some DV
how do you randomize the assignment of control and experimental groups in C-C research? you can't randomize, so try and make two groups similar pair-wise matching of subjects
which kind of research tests hypotheses that concern cause and effect? experimental research
in the following hypothesis, what is the IV?DV? experimental group? TINSD in the blood triglycerides of those consuming a low carbohydrate diet versus those who are not consuming a low carbohydrate diet IV: diet DV: blood TG Experimental group: low CHO diet
what are threats to experimental validity - any uncontrolled, extraneous variables - if the results seen are due to a reason other than the IV
internal validity vs. external validity internal: conditions observed are a result of the IV, within the study external: results are generalizable outside of the study
an event occurred which is not part of the study (ex: Sept 11) threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? history effect internal validity
physical or mental changes of subjects (ex: puberty) - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? maturation effect internal validity
pretest sensitization - potential of a treatment's effect on subjects - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? testing effect internal validity
invalid assessment tool - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? instrumentation effect internal validity
subjects selected on their extreme scores - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? statistical regression effect internal validity
loss of subjects - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? attrition effect (mortality) internal validity
6 threats to internal validity - name 2 - history - maturation - testing - instrumentation - statistical regression - mortality/attrition
subjects respond differently d/t pretest given - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? pre-rest treatment interactions external validity
same subjects get more than 1 treatment - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? multiple treatment interference external validity
differential selection of subjects - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? selection treatment interaction external validity
problems with subject selection, variable definition, instruments, etc - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? specificity of variables external validity
biases, personal impact, influence subjects' behavior, etc. - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? experimenter effects external validity
number of factors used to control the study - threat to internal or external validity? what is it called? reactive arrangements external validity
6 threats to external validity - name 2 - pre-rest treatment interactions - multiple treatment interference - selection treatment interaction - specificity of variables - experimenter effects - reactive arrangements
degree to which a test measures an intended area content validity
2 kinds of content validity item validity: do questions/items represent measurement in the content area sampling validity: are the questions/items a good representation of the content area (do they cover all bases)
does the test appear to do what it wishes face validity (non-scientific concept)
degree to which a test measures a desired observable trait construct validity (measures obscure concepts)
degree to which a test is related to another test concurrent validity
degree to which a test can predict how a subject will do in the future predictive validity
7 types of validity - name 2 content item sampling face construct concurrent predictive
degree to which scores are consistent over time test-retest reliability
two tests that are identical except the actual items included (same structure, # of items, content is different) equivalent forms reliability
make comparisons on two halves of a test used to measure internal consistency, appropriate when a test is long split-half reliability
determines how all items on a test relate to all other items on the total test (Kuder-Richardson formula) rationale equivalence reliability
important for subjective questions and when more than one person is scoring the test scorer/rater reliability
5 types of reliability - name 2 test-retest equivalent forms split-half rationale equivalence scorer/rater
format considerations for questionnaire construction eye appeal logical arrangement of items off-set or underling important words number consecutively put name of who form should be returned to at beginning include brief, clear instructions avoid words "questionnaire" or "checklist"
problems with survey questions o Double barreled o Response categories don’t align, don’t make sense, don’t match the questions o Badly worded sentences
condition that exists in quantitative research when 2 or more variables measure the same things Multicollinearity - Want to be careful you don’t have this, but If you have this scale them together
narrative and visual (non-numerical) data descriptive data (qualitative research)
research usually done over a period of time, with intensive data collection in a naturalistic setting, not trying to control, looks at bigger picture (feeling, beliefs, meanings) qualitative research
T/F: Generalizability is not important in qualitative research true
what kind of sampling is often used in qualitative research? purposive sampling (since it is difficult to recruit)
main data collection method for qualitative research interviews
what are some things to consider when interviewing subjects for qualitative research - have a list of guiding questions related to study goals - allow questions to evolve between interviews - tape record as much as possible - make a paper trail
"How education changed through history" is an example topic for what kind of qualitative research? historical research
what kind of research involves watching participants observational
non-participant observation - what is it? what are benefits? observer is not directly involved in the situation being observed - less intrusive, less likely for researcher to become emotionally involved
participant-based observation - what is it? pros and cons? observer becomes participant in the situation being observed (+): may get data that was otherwise impossible to get if not involved (- ): more intrusive, more likely for researcher to become emotionally involved
research where participants are observed in their natural setting naturalistic observation
research where participants role-play in a fake setting simulation
study of how different humans experience the world around them; involves photos and written accounts about experiences and meanings attached narrative research
study of cultural patterns and perspectives in a natural setting... what is it called? what is the goal? ethnographic research goal: to understand a group and their culture of people over time
research that focuses on one unit; to study phenomena that are not easily studied by other research methods case study research
goals in data analysis/interpretation of qualitative research? - identify themes/patterns that keep arising - look for validity
degree to which observations accurately reflect what was observed validity
what method is used to ensure validity in qualitative research triangulation
multiple methods used to verify the truth of what is being observed triangulation (use interviews, observations, records, documents) aka: "chunking" the data
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