memory - psychology

ciaramcgrath
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ciaramcgrath
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-models of memory -nature of memory

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MODELS OF MEMORY -Multi-store model of memory -Working memory model -Reconstructive memory -Semantic and Episodic -The Nature of Memory
MULTI-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY (ATKINSON AND SHIFFREN 1968) in their model they described memory as constisting of 3 components; a sensory store, short-term store and a long-term store. -sensory store; when we experience something e.g. something we have seen, this experience is stored into our sensory store. -information that we attended to is then transferred into our short-term store where it is held for around 30 seconds until it decays. -information that starts to be rehearsed is then transferred into our long-term store. (some information may be lost over time from here if we do not use it)
WORKING MEMORY MODEL (BADDELEY AND HITCH 1974) in their moel they described as having 3 components for woking memory; the central executive, the phonologial loop and visuospatial sketchpad. -central executive; this is decribed as being like a 'homunculus' which is a small human as it is the control of the system; it allocates resources to the other components by telling them what to attend to&how they should function. -phonological loop; this has 2 slave systems:the articulatory rehearsal store and the phonological store. the articulatory rehearsal store is a way of extending the capacity of the phonological store(which is a place where verbal info is held for a few seconds). -visuospatial sketchpad; this is where all visual and spatial(locational) information is held. can deal with the info either by observing it through images or recalling it from our long-term memory. the role of the vssp is to maintain and intergrate visual&spatial info from these diff channels using a visual code -Baddeley&Hitch decribed the way that the two slave systems integrate (connect) with eachother as the 'episodic buffer'
RECONSTRUCTIVE MEMORY (BARTLETT 1932) how we view things/remember them depends on how we interpret the object/info/situation, the interpretation of this info depends on our life experience -perception; used experiments using shapes and found that participants assigned labels and names to these shapes according to what they believed them to look like, he concluded that the perception of the shape/object determined how it was remembered. -imaging; used ink blots&asked participants to write down what they pattern they saw. noticed that they 'rummaged about' their own stored images to find something that linked to what they saw. he suggested that the descriptions given were mainly determined by the individuals own interests&experiences&mood at the time. he found that once the stimulus was given meaning for the individual it can be more readily assimilated and stored.
RECONSTUCTIVE MEMORY CONTINUED (remembering and schemas) -remembering (war of the ghosts); he presented participants with an old folk story and asked them on multiple times to recount the story without re-reading it, he noticed that the participants would change parts of the story to match their experiences of the world; e.g. canoes would become boats he found that the process of remembering is constuctive in nature and influenced by inferences made by the individual. /bartlett proposed that previous knowledge was used to interpret information to be stored and to actively reconstruct memories to be recalled/ -schemas are "parcels of stored knowledge/a mental representation of info about a specific event or object". every schema has fixed&variable info e.g. when going to a restaurant the fixed info would be what you would expect the place to look like&the service you would recieve and the variables would be the cost&whats on the menu. he argued that we do not remember all that we percieve&that we use our own knowledge of the world to fill in the gaps for an event that we can't remember everything for.
SEMANTIC AND EPISODIC MEMORY (TULVING 1972) -semantic memory; this is memory with a meaning e.g. knowing that London is the capital of England. it is represented as a 'mental encyclopedia' as it stores words, fact, rules,meanings&concepts as an organised body of knowledge. -episodic memory; this is memory to do with events e..g. remembering your first day at school. it recieves and stores info about life experiences/events. linked to time and context. -retrieval; for semantic memory retrieval is possible without learning (no cued retrieval) whereas for episodic memory retrieval is due to cues which are encoded at the point of learning. -forgetting; for semantic the memory trace is more robust and less susceptible to transformation (facts mainly stay the same), whereas for episodic there can be forgetting due to retrieval cue failure and the memory trace can be transformed/change (sometimes you change details of a memory). -semantic memory can operate independently of episodic memory. however, episodic memory is unlikely to operate without semantic as we need to draw on previous knowledge in order to understand the events.
THE NATURE OF MEMORY (encoding, capacity, duration, retrieval) SHORT-TERM MEMORY; -ENCODING; held in verbal/auditory form due to the phonological similarity effect as letters/words that sound similar are difficult to store/remember/recall. (atkinson&shiffren) -CAPACITY; miller 1956 said that on average we can remember 7+/-2 items of information. -DURATION; information can only be stored in our STM store for around 30seconds before it decays&we forget it. -RETRIEVAL; largely based on rapid sequential scan of the stored information. rehearsal is a very important part in maintaining info in our STM store. LONG-TERM MEMORY -ENCODING; depends on the rehearsal process or some form of association between the new and pre-existing knowledge stored there.. the encoding is mainly semantic and temporal(time-related). -CAPACITY; potentiall infinite. thousands of pieces of informtion can be stored in our LTM store. -DURATION; potentially lifetime. thousands of pieces of info can be maintained sucessfully in this store for upto a lifetime. -RETRIEVAL; semantic or temporal(time-related) search.
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