Addiction 2

Flashcards by halle074, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by halle074 over 5 years ago



Resource summary

Question Answer
young people do the most drugs
Early Drug Abuse and Externalizing Outcomes
Drug abuse involves many issue -violence inside and outside of the home -school, work, relationship trouble -money problems -child abuse/neglect -driving accidents -legal problems
The Addicted Brain
Drug abusers have fewer dopamine receptors in general, drug abusers are more likely to experience the pleasant (and not unpleasant) effects of abused drugs
the addicted brain comparing the brains of "drug users" and "non-users" and tricky - why are they different? -pre-existing conditions or neurotoxicity -the which came first dilemma
addiction is strongly heritable
addiction is strongly heritable bigger limbic and striatal structures of relatives of stimulant-dependent individuals
experimental to understand why one variable causes another two main components -scientists can control/manipulate variables -subject/sampling is randomly assigned to groups, treatments, etc.
before drug-exposure because groups are begin chosen randomly, they should be pretty balanced at the beginning of the study
after drug exposure differences in pre- to post testing for the drug-exposed group reduced the bain outcome; ergo the drug changed the brain
experiments of chronic and heavy drug use in humans? -legal and ethical limitations limit experiments on humans -no institutional review board will allow the potential serious harm of human subjects -animal research may help, but nonhuman research subjects lack generalizability
observational design -not an experiment (ie no random assignment) -must take participants "as they are" -correlation, not causation
observational drug research difference in "brain outcome" my exist prior to using the drug may even cause drug abuse in the first place
experiments of chronic and heavy drug use in humans? identical twins sharing 100% of genes and often share many other concepts
identical twins differ any ways that identical twins differ must be due to differences in which they have in common (e.g. genes, rearing environment)
quasi experiment twin design may be used to rule-out hypothesis that genes or shared environment cause brain differences
anterior cingulate cortex active during -pain recepetors -anxiety disorders
Beta EEG during "relax" present during -emotive & cognitive arousal -insomnia -seizure onset -inversely related to muscle/mood relaxation
frontal beta EEG in alcoholics and binge drinkers increase
alcohol may cause difference in twins -identical twins offer a glimpse at what twins would have looked like had he/she lived differently
frontal beta EEG differences between genders Female drinkers have more frontal EEG than identical twins that drink less
frontal EEG activity alcohol may cause increase in frontal EEG activity, perhaps explain long-term withdrawal symptoms -Beta EEG correlates to anxiousness, insomnia -alcohol withdrawal relates to anxiety, insomnia -larger increase for females, little differences in males
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