AS: Approaches - Biopsychology

Flashcards by , created over 3 years ago

Flashcards on AS: Approaches - Biopsychology, created by Jubby on 03/19/2016.

Created by Jubby over 3 years ago
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Question Answer
What is a neuron? A specialised cell that receives, processes and transmits information (signals) to other neurons as well as muscles and organs.
There are 3 types of neurons... Sensory Motor Connector ( or relay)
Sensory neuron functions? Located in 'sense organs'. Carry messages from sense organ to the CNS (central nervous system)
Motor neuron functions? These carry messages from the spinal cord and brain (CNS) to muscles.
Relay neurons Only found in CNS. Connect neurons with other neurons. represent 95% of all neurons. mostly located in the brain.
96ab39dd-2906-4893-8da9-ee96c61fe2ca.png (image/png) 1. Dendrite 2. Cell body 3. Node of Ranvier (indentations) 4. Axon terminal 5. Nucleus 6. Axon 7. Myelin Sheath (8. Schwann cell)
Axon: A long extension from the cell body which nerve impulses are sent through. Myelin sheath: fatty material that surrounds, insulates and protects the axon. Axon terminal: End of the axon; releases neuro transmitters to communicate with other neurons. Dendrites: Receive signals from adjacent neurons and process the information received.
Synaptic cleft: a gap between axon terminals and dendrites. Signals cross this gap in the form of neurotransmitters. Node of Ranvier: small indentions in the myelin sheath. speeds up the process of transmitting.
Briefly describe synaptic transmission -Messages sent across axon as electrical impulses -cross the synapse in the form of chemical neurotransmitters -Each neurotransmitter then has ac specific receptor site on the other neuron / dendrites
7c790553-9c7a-4106-acd1-d6303cc710c3.jpg (image/jpg) c33302c2-1f2c-4451-b302-b80e2d252c64.jpg (image/jpg)
The nervous system has many divisions... 7e097125-1f0f-4f87-b270-b205e6fad7ca.gif (image/gif)
the sympathetic and parasympathetic Ns's work in opposition... physiological changes due to sympathetic NS state.... increased heart rate increased breathing rate dilated pupils inhibited digestion/saliva production contracted muscles
physiological aspects of parasympathetic ns state... decreased (normal) heart/breathing rate constricted pupils digestion/saliva production continues muscles relax
Made up of glands that secretes chemicals called hormones into the blood stream. The endocrine system
Examples: Pituitary gland Thyroid Adrenals Testes Ovaries -controls release of hormones from other -glands in the body -Thyroxine -adrenaline for 'fight or flight mode' -testosterone -oestrogen and progesterone
Briefly describe the process of 'fight or flight mode'... -stressful event -autonomic NS changes it's normal state into the sympathetic state -pituitary gland in the hypothalamus releases ACTH -ACTH stimulate adrenals to produce adrenaline -adrenaline triggers physiological changes of SNS state (body is now ready for action)
Strengths of this approach -Objective -Scientific -Lab experiments = lots of control -Has many applications in real life (drugs for mental illnesses as they're caused by chemical imbalances in the brain)
Weaknesses of this approach -Deterministic (what about free will? ) -Reductionist (behaviour = atoms? aren't we all unique??) -Ethical issues - can we play with genetics? -Ignores environmental factors/experiences (overly simplistic)
What are twin studies? To test whether a certain characteristic is caused by genetics twin studies are carried out that look for degrees of similarity.
Monozygotic twins (identical) 100% shared genes same sex develop from one egg/embryo that splits Dizygotic twins (separate) 50% shared genes Any sex combination Two eggs released and developed
Twin studies are evaluated based on their concordance rates (%) Concordant if both twins develop the same studied trait/characteristic Discordant if only one twin develops the trait/characteristic.
If Mz twins have a genetically hereditary trait that only one seems to have it could be caused by the environmental factors. why? Although 100% DNA is shared... certain phenotypes will only be expressed under certain conditions
Phenylketonuria (PKU) this condition illustrates the importance of environmental factors (on the phenotype) affects 1 in 10,000 although a person can posses the genotype for the condition it's possible to avoid it by not consuming a certain amino acid throughout the individuals life since birth. Environment > biology (?)