A-level English Language Power & Gender Theories

Libby Shaw
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

Power and Gender Theories from A-level English Language. (useful for both AS and A2).

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Libby Shaw
Created by Libby Shaw over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
WAREING'S THEORY: Personal Power Those who hold power as a result of their occupational role, such as teacher or employers.
WAREING'S THEORY: Political Power That held by politicians, police and those working in the law courts.
WAREING'S THEORY: Social Group Those who hold power as a result of social variables such as class, gender or age.
WAREING'S THEORY: Instrumental Power When it is used by individuals or groups to maintain/enforce authority. e.g Road Signs, Fire Exit Signs, Instructions
WAREING'S THEORY: Influential Power When it is used to influence/persuade others e.g Adverts, Books, Newspaper/Magazines, Posters
ALTHUSSER'S THEORY - Audience Positioning This refers to the choice of pronoun a writer or speaker makes in order to build a relationship with the reader. E.G 'I' is exclusive, it excludes the reader 'We' is inclusive, it includes the reader 'You' adressess the reader personally.
ALTHUSSER'S THEORY - 'Our culture favours...' Our culture favours one particular group in society - this refers to two groups he labels as bourgeoisie (upper class) and proletariat (working class).
ALTHUSSER'S THEORY - ISAs ISAs - those in power today are ISAs - Ideological State Apparatuses. Those in power use various means to reinforce ways of thinking; this means we willingly accept their view of society's norms of behaviour and attitude.
ALTHUSSER'S THEORY: Ideologically Positioning Texts are able to position their reader into holding a particular mind set by creating the ideal reader.
ALTHUSSER'S THEORY: Interpellation The concept that no text is innocent or mundane. The power of the text relies on the ability to position the subject so they cannot easily adopt a different view.
FAIRCLOUGH'S THEORY: Synthetic Personalistaion The construction of a relationship between producer and receiver by using personalised language such as 2nd person 'you'.
FAIRCLOUGH'S THEORY: Creating an image of the text Using visual and verbal cues to evoke knowledge behaviour and lifestyle frames.
FAIRCLOUGH'S THEORY: Building the consumer Positioning the receiver as an ideal reader or consumer of this text/product.
BROWN & LEVINSON'S THEORY: Face Politeness Strategies are developed in order to save 'face'. Face refers to the respect that an individual has for him or herself, and maintaining that 'self-esteem' in public or in private situations.
BROWN & LEVINSON'S THEORY: Face Threatening Acts (FTAs) These are acts that infringe on the hearers' need to maintain his/her self esteem, and be respected.
BROWN & LEVINSON'S THEORY: Politeness Strategies (Bald on Record) This does nothing to minimize threats to the hearer's 'face'. It can be used in hostile situations e.g 'Turn your headlights on!!' to a stranger, or those where you are very comfortable such as with family e.g 'Give me the remote you idiot!!' to a younger sibling.