22 British empire questions

Daniel Schmidt
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Sam Webb-Smith
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A series of questions about the British Empire.

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Question Answer
What is a formal and informal empire? Formal: Countries directly ruled by Britain e.g. India Informal: Countries that traded exclusively with Britain and for had strong cultural ties with e.g. China
What are the key features of the economic view of empire? - J.A. Hobson argued that the British empire expanded due to economical reasons - The theory was that the British produced too much to invest domestically - To invest the capital properly the British empire would have to trade internationally
What are the key features to the social view of empire? - Other historians argued the empire grew due to domestic improvement e.g. growth of industry - Benjamin Disraeli used British expansion as a means for the British public to think less about domestic problems
What are the key features to the cultural view of empire? - British values were superior to African values - British would spread their values e.g. British legal system - David Livingstone was big example of this spreading Christianity and he respected the indigenous people and influenced them into supporting British colonial policy
Define imperalism - A policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonisation through the use of military force or other needs
Define the scramble of Africa - Invasion,occupation, colonisation of African territory were European powers tried to gain control of African nations first. Between 1881 and 1814.
Give the 5 reasons for why European countries expanded into Africa - Economic reasons - Great power rivalry - Social Darwinism - Civilising mission - Technology
What were the economic reasons to expand into Africa? - Africa was rich in natural resources e.g. diamond and gold - Lots of things that could not be grown in Britain were found out there and it could make the British very profitable
Why was the great power rivalry a reason to expand into Africa? - To prestigious over other European countries - Other countries didn't want them having more power over them
Why was social Darwinism a reason to expand into Africa? - Darwin's theory became popular in that time period late 19th century - Survival of the fittest the most powerful nations will prosper
Key points to the occupation of Egypt - Britain wanted to gain control over Egypt so that they could have control over the Suez canal - Britain's interest in Egypt was mainly strategic - Egypt supplied the British with Cotton when the Americans stopped
Key points of the Suez canal shares - Disraeli bought 44% of the shares of the canal at the cost of 4 million - 1874 Egypt declared itself bankrupt and this was a good opportunity for the British to take control
What happened in the uprising in Egypt and what was the outcome? - Britain had duel control with France - This angered the Egyptians and Pasha led and uprising and Gladstone agreed to use force 31st of July 1882 to defeat the Egyptian forces - Britain won but Gladstone said the control in Egypt was only temporary
Was Gladstone an imperialist? - No
Key points to Germany in the scramble for Africa - Germany were on the up after the win against France and this caused a wave of nationalism - The Germans then wanted to spread their influence - Germany's economy was improving 700% increase on production between 1871-1890
Key points of France in the scramble for Africa - France already had an overseas empire in South East Asia - Wanted to out compete the British but they were fairly shaken by the loss in the Franco-Prussian war
Britain in the scramble for Africa key points - Britain in the 1880s was pretty much the most powerful nation in the world - Britain needed to stay powerful and they couldn't allow the Germans to increase their power anymore
What is a chartered company? - An association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade,exploration and colonisation
Why were they formed? - To band together merchants to undertake ventures requiring more capital than if they were to do it alone
Why was the East India company formed? - So that they could trade with the West Indies - To share in the East Indian spice trade
What were the key features of the Indian mutiny and why did they attack? - Indian traditions weren't respected - In May 1857 Soldiers of the Bengal army shot their British soldiers and marched to Delhi - Indian Sepoy's (serving under British order) broke out of jail and hacked down British soldiers - The public felt the British were taxing them heavily - Use of pig grease in cartridges
How was India governed differently after 1857? Reform of army: - Ratio must be 2:1 British:Native - Artillery under British control Princes: - There loyalty was recognised and they were able to continue ruling their states Government: - British government took direct control of India
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