Tudor A2 flashcards

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Created by davidmorley5125 about 5 years ago


A-Level History Flashcards on Tudor A2 flashcards, created by davidmorley5125 on 02/01/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What meeting of Parliament 1529-1536 Reformed the church? Reformation Parliament
What is Royal Supremacy? King above Parliament and Church (1534)
Who took the lead on theological debates? Thomas Cranmer
What provinces were the English church divided into? (2 provinces) 1. Canterbury 2. York
Where were the six new bishoprics made when the church was reformed? 1.Gloucester 2.Peterborough 3.Oxford 4.Chester 5.Bristol and 6. Westminster
When and What was the Valor Ecclesiasticus? When: 1535 What: visitations of churches for a survey of their wealth and possessions. -how they operated
What job title allowed Cromwell to reform the Church of England? Vice Gerent of Spirituals
When was the act for the dissolution of the lesser monasteries? What was the churches wealth used for? When: 1536 What: used to increase Crowns wealth helped finance Henry's wars
When were the Ten Articles of faith introduced? What did they do? When: 1536 What: Incorporated distinct protestant articles and ideas EG. Seven sacraments down to three
What did the injunctions in 1536, Bishops book of 1537 and further injunctions in 1538 do? Attacked superstitious practices and encourages the dismantlement of statues and shrines ( remove catholic influence)
When was the dissolution of greater monasteries? 1539
What was the act of six articles? When was it introduced? What: restored catholic doctrines i.e. transubstantiation When: 1539
Example of how Henry cared about religious reforms by Cromwell? Trial of John Lambert He denied the real presence of mass and Henry believed he needed to slow Cromwell's protestant reforms.
What book replaced the Bishops book? What did it do? Kings book. Slowed reform and gave the church a clear direction.
How many churches closed under Edward VI? 2374
How many statutes were created between King John and Henry VII? How many by Henry VIII? 1. 1092 2. Henry VIII: 1032 shows parliament becoming a legislative body.
How did protector Somerset pass laws? Did he use Parliament? Passed laws through proclamations. Used proclamations to bypass parliament.
Did Northumberland use Parliament? Yes. He had a more consensual approach.
When was the act for First Fruits and Tenths? What did this and the administrative court set up do? When: 1534 They did: 1. Collect revenue 2. adopted modern methods of accounting 3. transfer revenue from Pope to King
When was the court of Augmentations set up? What did it handle? Set up: 1536 Handled monasterial lands and was set up by Cromwell.
When was the court of Wards set up? What did it handle? When: 1540 Handled: income from wardships and grounds in kings temporary possession.
What courts were reorganised in 1541 and 1542? 1541: Court of First Fruits and Tenths 1542: Court of general surveyors
What two events in Henry's foreign policy squandered money raised by Cromwell? 1. Scotland- Battle of Pinkie 1542 2. 3rd French War 1543-46
What was the process of removing Gold or Silver and replacing it with a base metal? What did it cause? Debasement caused inflation to the currency as the value of coinage was decreased.
Somerset's policy of keeping troops on the Scottish Border? What was the Downside? Garrisoning Problem: Very expensive £351,524
What did Northumberland do to try and stabilise the economy after Somerset? 1. End Debasement 2.Reform revenue courts 3. Appointed royal commission to investigate work of revenue courts 4. reduce debts 5.Reduce expenditure
When did the courts of Augmentations and General surveyors merge? What happened the other revenue courts? When: 1547 What happened: All merged into the Exchequer.
How many people were on the royal council? What was the role of the Council? 70 People Role was to advise on the divorce issue.
What position did Cromwell gain in the council in 1536? how did he manage it? - Principal Secretary. - 1. drew up an agenda. - 2. kept his own records. - 3. Oversaw attendance.
How many members were on Cromwell's executive Privy council? What did it feature? There we 19 members. featured: 1. regular meetings 2. its own clerical staff 3. defined agenda 4.Capable of operating without direct royal intervention
Who did Somerset use to gain control? Who did Northumberland use, what title did he give himself? Somerset used the Privy Chamber Northumberland used the Privy council and named himself the: Lord President of the Council
How many members did the Privy Council increase to? 33 by 1550.
Who was made president of the Council in Wales? Rowland Lee
What did the Act of Union do? 1. publishing royal proclamations 2. translation of orders where necessary 3. perogative court of justice
Who was the leading Magnate family in the South West? When was the Council of the West set up? Leading family: Courtenay's Set up: 1539
Who was the President of the Council of the West? Lord John Russell.
How did Cromwell manage faction? 1. King chief advisor. 2. Took a lot of titles. 3. Restricted access to the king.
What faction did Cromwell belong to? Who led it? Reformist Faction 1. Thomas Cromwell 2. Thomas Cranmer
Who led the conservative faction in the time of Cromwell? 1. Bishop Gardiner 2. Duke of Norfolk
Events that contributed to Cromwell's fall? 1. Trial of John Lambert 2. Act of Sic articles 3. Act of Precedence 4. Anne of Cleves marriage 5. Arrest of Barns, Jerome and Garret
What was the Regency Council set up to do? Set up to rule on Edwards behalf until he was of age. It was meant to be a balance of conservatives and reformers.
What did Bishop Gardiner accuse Cranmer of? What did Henry do? Cranmer was accused of heresy. Henry gave Cranmer his own ring as a sign of protection.
What two areas did Sir Anthony Denny control in 1546? 1. Access to Henry 2. Dry Stamp
What is Somerset's name, Earl and Dukedom? Who was he uncle to? Name: Edward Seymour Earl: Hertford Duke: Somerset Uncle to: Edward VI
Where did Somerset gain his power? Letters Patent (March 1547)
When did Somerset pass the new treason act? 1547
How was the new treason act met by the people and religion? People: Happy, lifted burden from Henry's reign Religion: Allowed people to practice faith freely.
How many proclamations did Somerset issue? 70
When was the Chantries act passed? What is a Chantry? Passed: 1547 Chantry: A religious house where political prisoners often escaped too.
What did the Chantries Act do ? 1. Raised Money 2. More money for war against Scotland and France
What depleted the Royal finances before Somerset came to power? Wars, Loans and Kings Expenditure.
What Court did Somerset set up for the poor? 'Court of requests'
When was the vagrancy Act introduced? 1547
What did the Vagrancy act do? Provided poor relief and an local officers to collect for the poor. Also if unemployed for 3 days a fit person would be branded with a 'v' and sold into slavery. (never put into effect)
What did Somerset do about enclosure? Used a proclamation to reverse enclosure to it's original state.
What taxes did Somerset initiate as part of this? 1. 5% personal property tax 2. 5% Sheep tax
What did Somerset do about War in Scotland? He perused the war and won it after the Battle of Pinkie. Then introduced Garrosining.
Why was Mary Queen of Scots a problem for Somerset? She married the French prince, Henry II and Somerset did not have the force do deal with her.
What rebellion broke out in 1549? 1. Western rebellion 2. Kett's rebellion
What happened in October 1549? Somerset was sent to the tower but released and restored to court.
What happened to Somerset in 1552 and what was he accused of? He was executed for treason
Who brought the charges against Somerset? Northumberland
Names and titles of Northumberland? Name: John Dudley Earl: Lisle Duke: Northumberland
What rebellion did Northumberland deal with? Kett's rebellion
How did Northumberland treat Edward? Positive relationship, gave him greater access to government.
Who did Northumberland involve with the running of Government? 1. William Cecil 2. William Paget
How did Northumberland improve the financial situation with the Treaty of Boulogne? He gave it back to France. Wanted 2,000,000 crowns but got 400,000 instead. King of France no longer to pay English Kings pension.
How did Northumberland improve the financial situation with Garrisoning? Pulled troops from Scotland to cut expenditure and only return if provoked.
How did Northumberland improve the financial situation with Debasement? Made one last debasement in May 1551 and then ended it.
How did Northumberland improve the financial situation with the Privy Coffer? Emergency fund set up to deal with contingencies and attempted to restructure the system of collecting revenue.
How did Northumberland improve the financial situation with the kings expenditure? Radical cuts: ended wars in Scotland and France. sold crown lands and stopped debasement and garrisoning.
How did Northumberland improve the financial situation with the revenue courts? Reduced the number of courts to just 2 and tried to restructure the system of collecting revenue.
What did Northumberland's new treason act do? Restored censorship and enlisted JP's to restore law and order in the localities.
What did Northumberland's new Vagrancy act do? It was repealed. helped dampen discontent of landowners.
What did Northumberland's new Enclosure policy do? Introduced the Poor law to enable aged to survive. removed the sheep tax.
What did Northumberland's policy on controlling grain do? Controlled prices to stop abuses of those who were selling it for a large profit.
How did Northumberland control faction? - Used a consensual approach through the Privy Council. -New Treason Act stopped rebellions and maintained law. - repealed harsh laws i.e.. Vagrancy Act
At what age was t agreed Edward would reach his majority? 16
What disease did Edward die of in 1553? Tuberculosis.
What was the name of Northumberland's son? Guildford Dudley
Who did he marry in May 1553? Lady Jane Grey
What did Edward draw up on his deathbed? 'Letters patent for the limitation of the Crown' (summer 1553)
What was the document to do? To stop the Catholic Queen Mary from taking the throne.
Who did the document originally name and what then was it changed to? Originally: Lady Jane Grey's male heirs Then: Lady Jane Grey AND her male heirs
When did Edward VI die? 6 July 1553
Why was Edwards death not announced for two days? AS Northumberland was arranging to get the council and Mayor of London to devise and declare Lady Jane Grey as queen.
What did Mary do in response to Northumberland's plan? 1. Proclaimed herself Queen. 2. Began mustering troops
When was Mary recognised as Queen? 20th July 1553
When was Northumberland arrested and executed? Arrested: 17th July 1553 Executed: 22 August 1553
What happened to Lady Jane Grey after Mary took the throne? Arrested and imprisoned In the tower of London.
Northumberland's title traditionally? 'Bad Duke'
How did Mary consolidate her position after the succession event? 1. 1553: Declared the Queen legitimate 2. 1554: 'Act concerning Legal Power'
Why was Somerset cautious with religious reform? He did not want a Catholic Backlash or rebellion.
What event shows he failed in moderate reform? Royal injunctions (1547)
What happened to the Act of six Articles under Somerset? Repealed. shows push towards Protestantism.
What happened to the treason act under Somerset? repealed harshness of Henry's reign i.e. heresy and censorship.
What happened to the Chantries act of 1545 under Somerset? Went further to confiscate wealth and property of Church. Continuation from dissolution of monasteries.
What happened to the royal injunctions 1547? Veneration of images told bishops to carry out services in English instead of Latin and an English tect bible.
What happened when the book of Homilies was introduced? Further push towards Protestantism by Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester and Bonner.
What did the arrest of Gardiner and Bonner show? Reformation was intended and that Clergy were to conform to the new guidelines.
When was the First Act of Uniformity passed? 1549
What did the First Act of Uniformity do? Enforced the book of Common prayer (Fist prayer book).
What were the aims of the book? Worship: outlined Transubstantiation: retained but no sacrifice involved latin: services now in English
How did protestants react to the Prayer book? Some believed the book did not go far enough and John Hoper suggested it had to many popish errors.
What direction did Northumberland take Religion? Strong push towards Protestantism.
How did Cranmer's ordinal push England towards greater Protestantism? New ordination of priests, move from catholic to protestant ministers. role of cleric now more of a preacher.
How did the introduction of Communion Tables push England towards greater Protestantism? Move from Catholic Altars to Protestant tables. Emphasized communion as a service and not a sacrifice.
How did the Removal of Conservative Clergy push England towards greater Protestantism? Gardiner and Bonner imprisoned due to book of homilies.
How did the further seizure of Ecclesiastical property push England towards greater Protestantism? Removal of Conservative Clergy that presided over Anglican property so that Northumbelrand could sell the land.
How did the Second Act of Uniformity and Second Prayer book push England towards greater Protestantism? Abandoned original structure of mass and removed Transubstantiation and now to be called Lords Supper. SPB removed wearing of catholic vestments.
How did the Forty Two Articles push England towards greater Protestantism? Written by Archbishop Cranmer they reformed theology of religion in England. Protected from Catholic falsehoods and Anabaptist zeal.
Did parliament oppose reform during Edwards reign? No as Northumberland told them what to do and Somerset did not use them.
How did Edward contribute to religious reform? Personal beliefs: realised that if he were to die he needed a protestant after him Hooper and ridley as advisors were strong reformists.
How did Edward contribute to religious reform? he introduced change to the ordination of priests and enforced the following of the First act of Uniformity.
Under Mary what was the First Statute of Repeal (1553)? Began the task of removing Protestantism returned towards the Act of Six articles in 1547.
What happened in the Second statute of repeal (1555)? Restored Papal headship and ended royal supremacy. Mass in Latin returned and MArried clergy to divorce or lose their earnings. Repealed all legislation to Henry VIII reign.
What happened in March 1554? Bishops told to return to Henry VIII last year i.e. Act of Six Articles
What happened to the Heresy laws in 1555? They were returned by parliament.
how many people were burnt as heretics between 1555 and 1558? 284
Names of Key people in Mary's reign? Gardiner ( most trusted advisor) Pole( returning Papal Authority) pope Julius III and Paul VI Mary Phillip II of Spain
Role of Mary to religion? Returned it to Catholicism and ended royal supremacy. removed key opposition: Ridley, Hugh, Latimer(1553) and Cranmer (1556)
Role of Parliament in Mary's reign? Approved heresy laws 1555 Some bishops replaced catholic bishops. Became more and more resistant to repeal legislation in MAry's reign
Role of Mary's advisors? Gardiner: Advise Mary to slow reform and was unenthusiastic about Papal authority. Pole: tried to speed up return to Catholicism and failed at restoring royal finances
Under Elizabeth what were the key reforms? 1. The Act of Supremacy 2. The Act of Uniformity 3. Additons to settlement
Outline the Act of Supremacy(1559)? Made Elizabeth supreme governor of England in the church. clergy and royal officers to make oath to her. papal supremacy revoked. heresy laws repealed. Archbishop of Canterbury remained Head Bishop
Outline the Act of Uniformity (1559)? focused on appearance of church and worship. New prayer book based on those of 1549 and 1552. All churches obliged to new book. everyone to attend church on hold days and Sundays. first fruits and tenths to be payed to the crown.
Additions to settlements? royal inunctions (1559): issued to enforce uniformity and supremacy. Thirty nine Articles (1563): Statement of doctrinal beliefs of the CofE. based on Cranmers 42 artilces.
Key people under Elizabeth? Pope pierce IV Sir Nicholas Bacon Elizabeth William Cecil Mary Stewart
Role on Elizabeth as a monarch? (religion) Revealed to be a pragmatic politician. pushed for uniformity and conformity. pushes reform throughout her reign, along with advisers who drove it
Role of parliament under Elizabeth? (religion) Resistance in the house of Lords. HOL were an obstacle and took all her political skill to outmaneuver them.
Role of advisors under Elizabeth? (religion) Sir Nicholas Bacon: consistently intervened Catholics to stop them debating services should remain in Latin. Stonewalled bishops using delay tactics. Sir William Cecil: Drafted the Royal Injunctions 1559
Key Years of Rebellions studied? 1536-37: Lincolnshire rising and POG-Henry VII 1549- Western (prayer book) and Kett's rebellion- Edward VI 1554: Wyatt's rebellion- Mary I 1571- Northern Rebellion - Elizabeth I
POG Causes ? (1536) Taxation- resentment of subsidy Economic hardship- food shortages, poor harvests Opposition to Cromwell Secular motives- resentment of taxation Religion- Dissolution of the Monasteries
Causes of Western and Kett's Rebellion? (1549) Religion: battle of catholic vs protestants faction: hatred of individuals i.e. Somerset Enclosure: Was hated by Rebels Rents: prices increased Personality clashes
Causes of Wyatt's rebellion? (1554) Marriage of Phillip II of Spain Catholic Mary to be replaced She is a woman most leaders are protestant Faction: support for Elizabeth fear of Spanish dominance
Causes of Northern Rebellion? (1571) Religion: Catholicism still prominent and Mary Q of S was still a figurehead for it. Succession: who would follow Elizabeth? Faction: Catholic nobles wanted real power not just titles and her style of leadership upsets nobles i.e. Norfolk, magnate Percy's who were catholic.
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