Biology B3 Flashcards

Saira Ashraf
Flashcards by Saira Ashraf, updated more than 1 year ago
Saira Ashraf
Created by Saira Ashraf over 4 years ago
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GCSE Biology Flashcards on Biology B3 Flashcards, created by Saira Ashraf on 02/14/2016.
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Question Answer
OSMOSIS Osmosis is the movement of water from a dilute (more water) to a concentrated (less water) solution through a partially permeable membrane.
Active Transport Active Transport is when substances move against the concentration gradient, (from an area of low concentration to a high concentration). It requires energy from respiration because it is going against the concentration gradient.
Trachea The Trachea is the windpipe. To prevent the windpipe from collapsing it has rings of cartilage around it.
Thorax The area that consists of the heart and the lungs. It is all protected by the rib cage.
Intercostal muscles The muscles that are responsible or raising and lowering the ribs.
Diaphragm The diaphragm is a muscular sheet that separates the thorax and the abdomen.
Alveoli Millions of air sacs where gas exchange can take place. They have a large surface area and the diffusion pathway is very short.
Transpiration The process in which plants absorb water using their roots and then give off water vapour through pores in their leaves.
Stomata A tiny opening in the epidermis of a plant. It allows carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to leave the plant.
The Circulation system. Is the body's transport system and carries blood from the heart to all cells. It provides them with food and oxygenated blood and takes away CO2 and deoxygenated blood. It allows lungs to diffuse out carbon dioxide and diffuse in oxygen.
Ateries They have thick walls that contain muscle and elastic fibres to withstand blood at a high pressure.
Veins Veins have thinner walls as the blood is at a lower pressure, They have valves that prevent blood from flowing backwards.
Capillaries Narrow, thin walled vessels. Substances needed by the cells pass out of the blood, and substances produced by cells pass into blood through the wall of the capillary.
Stent A stent is a small, metal tube that is inserted into arteries to keep it open. They are required when the artery becomes clogged with fat (blood clot).
The Blood A tissue that separates into four components. Plasma, white and red blood cells and platelets.
Plasma A straw coloured liquid that transports carbon dioxide from the organs to the lungs. It also transports glucose from the small intestine into the organs and urea from the liver to the kidneys.
Xylem Tissue Is responsible for transporting mineral ions and water from the roots to the stem and the leaves.
Phloem A tissue that transports any dissolved sugary produced in the leaves to the rest of the plants.
Heart Valves Flaps of tissue between the chambers of the heart. They open and close to ensure the direction of the blood is correct.
Urea Urea is produced by the liver when it breaks down excess amino acids (proteins) and is removed by the kidneys to the bladder.
Glucagon A hormone produced by the pancreas when the blood glucose levels fall. This causes glycogen (substance stored in the liver) to convert into glucose and release into the blood.
Type 1 Diabetes A disease where the person's blood glucose concentration rises to a high level as the pancreas is not producing enough insulin. They are usually treated with a diet plan, exercise or injections of insulin.
Thermoregulatory Centre A part of the brain that monitors and controls the body temperature (should be around 37 degrees). Temperature regulators in the skin send impulses to the centre about the skin temperature.
Deforestation The large-scale cutting down of trees for timber and to provide land for agriculture purposes. This has devastating consequences.
Peat Bogs Areas of wetland, where decaying plants have been formed into peat. It is extensively used as a compost for growing plants and can be burnt as a fuel.
Biofuels Liquid fuels made from a living thing. They are generally made by fermentation or fast growing crops such as sugarcane, corn and palm oil.
Biogas Bio gas, which is mainly methane can be produced by anaerobic fermentation using a range of organic or waste material containing carbohydrates.
Mycoprotein Is a meat-free, high-quality protein that is suitable for vegetarians. It is produced by the fungus Fusarium, which is grown on glucose syrup in aerobic conditions. The biomass is then harvested and purified.
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