Political Geography Flash Cards

Flashcards by samzamora502, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by samzamora502 over 4 years ago


Flashcards on Political Geography Flash Cards, created by samzamora502 on 02/29/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Annexation the action of annexing something, especially territory.
Antarctica Antarctica, the southernmost continent and site of the South Pole, is a virtually uninhabited, ice-covered landmass.
Apartheid an African word meaning "separate", or "the state of being apart", it was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP), the governing party from 1948 to 1994.
Balkanization a geopolitical term, originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or uncooperative with one another.
Border landscape There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border
Boundary, Disputes (definitional, locational, operational, allocational) Conflicts over the location, size and extent of borders between nations. The four types: Definitional- Legal language Locational- interpretation of the border Operational- functioning of boundaries Allocational- natural resource distribution
Boundary, Origin (antecedent, subsequent, superimposed, relic) Ment to establish claims to land and were often smaller historically. Boundaries often origionated from old tribal lands or lands won in war. The four types: Antecedent- existed before human settlement in an area Subsequent- along with cultural landscape. accommodates religious, cultural and economic differences Superimposed- Political boundary (ignores cultural organization, placed by higher authority) Relic- boundary non-existant anymore but impact of boundary is still seen.
Boundary, Process (definition, delimintation, demarcation) Establishing a boundary between states. Steps: Definition- define boundary through treaty like legal documents. Delimitation- cartographers draw on map. Demarcation- visible means to mark boundary on ground. Administration- determine how it will be maintained and how people/goods will cross it.
Boundary, type (natural/physical, ethnographic/cultural, geometric) Geometric- straight lines of longitude and latitude Natural/Physical- natural features Ethnographic/Cultural- cultural factors such as language, religion, or ethnicity
Buffer state A country that lies between two states in conflict but which remains neutral.
Capital Principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate a capital is at the center of a country, so it is a somewhat equal distance from all parts of the country.
Centrifugal Forces that tend to divide a country- such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic or ideological differences.
Centripetal Forces that tend to unity a country- such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives and a common faith.
City-state A state that is compromised of a large urban area or city.
Colonialism The practice of establishing political dominance over another people for economic, political and territorial gain.
Confederation A joining of several groups for a common purpose.
Conference of Berlin (1884) Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country's colonies.
Core/Periphery Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
Decolonization The achievement of independence by countries that were once colonies of other states.
Devolution The process where by regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
Domino Theory Adopted by the U.S. in the 60's and 70's to prevent the spread of communism.
EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) Sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources.
Electoral Regions The different voting districts that make up local, state and notional regions.
Enclave District surrounded by a country but not ruled by it.
Exclave Pieces of national territory separated from the main body of a country by the territory of another.
Ethnic Conflict Type of conflict that occurs when different tribes are lumped together to form a country.
European Union a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe
Federal a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments
Forward Capital A forward capital is a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons.
Frontier A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Geopolitics The state's power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations
Gerrymander The state's power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations
Global Commons is that which no one person or state may own or control and which is central to life.
Immigrant State a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants.
International Organization an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence
Iron Curtain the physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
Irredentism The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state.
Landlocked A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Mackinder's Heartland Theory that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world
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