The Boer War

Joshua Russell
Flashcards by , created over 6 years ago

History (Boer War) Flashcards on The Boer War, created by Joshua Russell on 04/17/2013.

Joshua Russell
Created by Joshua Russell over 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Scorched Earth Policy September 1900 - May 1902 If a household was found to support the Boers or being used by the Boers then it would be burned down. The animals would be killed or taken by the British. Those that had no where to go were taken into the camps.
Guerrilla War and Response British in nominal control. Hard core (20,000) Boers don't give up. Blockhouses built + barbed wire fencing. Regular sweeps of land - arresting Boers. Farmhouses burnt & livestock killed or captured. Civilians put into concentration camps (about 1 in 4 died).
Who Supported The War? Location - High in Birmingham/ London, Irish support Boers. Political Party - Liberals split. Conservatives win Khaki election in 1900 (low turnout & not a true democracy). Independent Labour party against. Religion - Possibly more support from mc and uc as more to gain
Main Outcomes of the War MILITARY Esher report - 1903. Haldane Reforms between 1905-1912. SOCIAL Booth & Rowntree social reports Plus recruitment health = Liberal Welfare reforms 1906-1911. POLITICAL Tariff reform led to fall of Tories & success of Liberals in 1906 election. Politicization of some women.
Black Week December 1899 Buller's forces were divided into three: Methuen to relieve Kimberly BUT was attacked and defeated at Magorsfontain. Buller to relieve Ladysmith but defeated at Colenso. Gatacre to protect railway lines but defeated Stormburg. Spion Kop 26/1/1900 Murderous Acre
What Were The Three Sieges? October 1899. Mafeking Ladysmith Kimberley Boers had decided to block off these towns, where some British commanders & forces ended up, and hold off any relieving forces. Sieges relived: Ladysmith - February 1900 Kimberley - February 1900 Mafeking - May 1900
Joseph Chamberlain Liberal Unionist/Conservative - Colonial Secretary Joe's War. Birmingham constituency. Aggressive in stance.
Alfred Milner British High COmmissioner Sent to SA in 1897. Passionate Imperialist. Uncompromising. Intense personal dislike of Kruger. "I'll teach those bloody Boers a lesson." Believed Kruger was bluffing & would back down at the last minute.
David Lloyd George Pro-Boer (Anti War) Liberal MP for Caenarvon, North Wales from 1890. Noted public speaker. Spoke against war e.g. In Birmingham December 1901 = near riot
Sir Redvers Buller Aged 60. Took over command when reinfocements arrived in December 1898. 84,000 troops (50,000 infantry). Nickname 'Sir Reverse'. Replaced in January 1900.
Lord Roberts (Bobs) Aged 67. Took over January 1900. New orders: Careful reconnaissance. Avoidance of frontal attacks in formation. More use of cover. Instigated scorched earth policy before leaving SA.
Lord Kitchener 2nd of the two heroes sent out to change Britain's fortunes initially under Roberts. In command from November 1900. Built 8,000 fortified BLOCKHOUSES and barbed wire fences to parcel up veldt and allow 'sweeps' of each area. (Veldt is an area of SA)
Emily Hobhouse Liberal Supporter. Visited SA in late 1900 to early 1901 to take food and clothes. Described camp conditions which had worsened in the 3 months she was there. Tried to go back in October 1901 - not allowed off ship. S.Africans gave her money for a house (in thanks) in 1920s.
Millicent Fawcett Headed up 'Fawcett Commission' Established by govt. Sent out to SA to make official report on camps. In SA August to December 1901. Her report confirmed Hobhouse's.
Rudyard Kipling Popular Writer and Poet Imperialist. Visited SA near start of war and was critical of organisation he saw there. Poem (song) The Absent Minded Beggar was associated with soldier's wives and children's fun which raised £70,000 by the end of January 1900.
Winston Churchill Journalist in War Writing for Morning Post Journalist. Possibly had an agreed code with paper. Captured by Boers on a scouting expedition and then escaped. Became a minor national hero. Gained a commission in 'SA Light Horse' and was among the first into Ladysmith in February 1900. Became an MP in Khaki election of 1900.
How Was The War Reported? Press accreditation had been introduced - accredited journalists could draw rations, animal fodder and could claim POW status if captured. Remember impact of cheap pocket cameras and photography in this war - moving beyond posed and official.
How Was The War Censored? FIRST WAR - where there was an official military censor. Meant to avoid anything which could help enemy. Limited access to military telegraph on submission to military censorship. Censorship lax - tendency to trust the press as man were 'Officers and Gentlemen'.
Paul Kruger President - Leader of the Transvaal Government Insisted Uitlanders had to be resident for 14 years before applying for naturalization. He was also Stubborn.
Lord Salisbury Conservative Prime Minister 1895 Also Foreign Secretary. Aimed to protect British interests through keeping the peace. He believed in isolationism.