History Alive

Flashcards by ajahurtado, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ajahurtado over 5 years ago


Learn about the first five presidents and Andrew Jackson .

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Question Answer
Whiskey Rebellion Congress agreed to place a tax on whiskey and other luxury goods such as carriages. Many farmers howled in protest that the tax was too high and refused to pay. Congress lowered the tax in 1793. George Washington led 13,000 state militia troops (at Hamilton's urging)across the mountains to CRUSH the rebellion, because hamilton and washington saw this rebellion as a threat to the authority to the national government.
Nullify To refuse to recognize a federal law.
Sedition The crime of encouraging rebellion against government.
States Rights Theory All rights kept by the states under the Constitution. Supporters argued that states where not obligated to honor federal laws that they believed violated the constitution.
Excise tax a tax on the production or sale of a product
Cabinet a group of 3 executive departments(Department of State, Department of War, A Treasury Department) who are often met with by the president for advice and ideas
Agrarian Person who favors an agricultural way of life and govern. Policies that support agricultural interests.
Jefferson was on the side of republican because of his belief in agricultural trade and farming. He believed government should be run by people or “common man.”
Hamilton Federalist. He believed in industrialism. He wanted booming businesses and MONEY. He felt they should be more like the brits. He believe in loans and he did not agree that a common man could work in the government because their decisions weren't educationally defended.
Inauguration A formal ceremony to mark the beginning of something such as a president's term of office.
Presidential Election of 1800 Jefferson, John Adams and Burr ran for election. Campaign ruined on insults. Resulted in tie b/w republican candidates for president and vice president.
12 Amendment The electoral college has to cast separate ballots for president and vice president. If no presidential candidate receives a majority of electoral votes then the HOR chooses a president from the top 3 candidates. If vice presidents have the same problem occur then the Senate gets to choose one.
A Peaceful Resolution A victory for not only Jefferson and his Republican party, but for the new system of government established by the constitution. Americans had learned that it was better to fight for power using parties and ballots rather than armies and bullets.
Alien Acts Four controversial laws. Alien acts aimed for (noncitizens). First law lengthened the time for an immigrants to become a citizen in order to vote from 5 to 15 yrs. Most immigrants voted for Republicans so Jeff saw this as an attack on his party. Other two ats allowed president to (expel) aliens who were suspected of stirring trouble. Frightened number of French Spies.
Sedition Acts Made encouraging rebellion against government a crime.This included “printing, writing, or speaking of hateful things against the govern., congress, or the PRESIDENT. Used to punish republican newspaper editors who loved insulting ADAMS.
States Rights Republicans saw Sedition acts as an attack on the rights of freedom of speech and press. They looked to the states to protect these precious laws. Congress went beyond the Constitution in passing these rights. States therefore had the right to nullify the laws.
Chapter 12 Study Guide { First 5 Presidents }
John Adams French where attacking American ships.In 1778 Napoleon agreed to end alliance with Americans. Adams followed G.W. policy of isolationism neutrality.
Jay Treaty Accomplishments In the treaty the British finally agreed to pull all their troops from the Ohio Valley. The French officials viewed this as a betrayal by the United States. In July 1796 the french navy began attacking American merchant ships bound for Britain.
XYZ Affair + America “Thoughts” 3 representatives sent to France to end the attacks. Minister Talleyrand refused to receive the Americans. Instead they were met by three agents known as agents X,Y, and Z. They stated that no peace talks would be made unless talleyrand received a large sum of money as a tribute.This outraged the Americans, at the president's urging congress voted 10,000 men to recruit as an army.
Jefferson In 1802 small fleet of warships were sent to Mediterranean to protect American shipping. 1804 ships started bombarding Tripoli with their cannons. Philadelphia ship captain and crew were captured and held for ransom. A raiding party set ship afire. Year later Tripoli signed a treaty with US. Agreed to stop demanding tribute payment. Barbary States still raided US ships. 1815 US and Europe naval destroyed pirate base.
Embargo In 1803 and 1807 France and Britain continued seizing US ships. Jeff proposed a complete halt in trade with other nations(embargo). No foreign ships could enter US ports. US could leave only to trade with other states.
Embargo effects Many people lost their shops in sea. Act repealed in 1809. American ships returned to sea and French and British warships continued to attack.
James Madison Tried offering a trade deal to France and Britt. Napoleon continued seizing American ships headed for British ports. Brits continued impressment of US sailors. Madison abandoned isolationism and declared war on Britt. Merchants new that this would cause a blockade of ports by Britt Navy
Battle of New Orleans British commanders in America invaded New Orleans. Led by General Andrew Jacksons and a army of 7k militia. 2k Britt troops killed. On 20a killed. Peace Treaty was signed with British and American diplomats. News did not reach New Orleans until after the battle was fought.
Effects Indian resistance in North weekend after Tecumseh's death. Many where driven out of Ohio Valley. Federalist party damaged after opposition to war. Americans pride surged over victory.
Latin America Independence Colonial people in South America revolt against Spain. Once freed from spain Latin AMerican nations can trade with foreigners . Other European leaders began talking about helping Spain recover its colonies.
Monroe Dilemma whether to support Latin States. In 1823. Monroe issued a policy called Monroe Doctrine. Warned nations of Europe to leave the Americans alone.
Neutrality A policy of not choosing sides in a war or dispute between two countries.
Chapter 14 Jacksonian Democracy :Belief in the power of regular people. They have the right to control their government.
Self made man Achieving wealth or influence through ones own effort rather than being born to a privileged.
Henry Clay Clay ran for presidency but came in fourth place. He urged his supporters in House to back up Adams. That support gave Adams enough votes to become president. Clay became secretary of state.
Spoil System Jackson believed rotating people in office was more democratic than life time services.It gave more people a chance to serve their government. He created the spoils system which was the practice of rewarding political supporters with government jobs. This term came from the saying,” to the victor belongs the spoils of war.”
Tariff In 1828 Congress passed a law raising tariffs on imported goods such as cloth and glass.The idea was to encourage the growth and manufacturing. Higher tariffs meant higher prices for imported factory goods. Northern states full of new factories favored the new tariff law.
John C. Calhoun Was vice president.He disagreed with the tariff tax and rallied the southern states to call the tariff illegal and not to be honored.
Tariff tariffs raised the prices they paid for factory goods.Higher Tariffs also discouraged trade amongst nations and planters in the south worried that tariffs would hurt cotton sales to other countries. Also many southerners believed that a law favoring one region (north) was unconstitutional. Jackson understood the southerners concerns so in 1832 he signed a new law that lowered tariffs.
Nullification of Tariff: This was not enough to satisfy extreme supporters of states rights in South Carolina. Led by Calhoun they rejected the tariff in 1828 and 1832. They threatened to secede if the federal government tried to enforce the tariff laws. Jackson outraged and called out to Congress to pass the Force Bill. This allowed the federal army to collect tariffs.
Five Civilized Tribes -Creek -Cherokee -Chickasaw -Choctaw -Seminole Hoping to keep their land they adopted many white customs. Many tribes gave up farming to become farmers. They learned how to read and write.
Westward Agriculture As the cotton production headed westward wealthy planters and poor farmers became greedy for land. They decided the Indian shad to go.
Indian Removal Acts 1830 allowed president to make treaties in which natives in the east traded land for new territory on Great Plains. 1831 supreme court ruled that indians had a right to their land.
Angry Jackson Groups that refused to move west voluntarily where met with military force.
Battle the Bank of US Jack believed banks benefited Eastern investors instead of farmers and workers as well as state banks. Jackson vetoed charter bill even though supreme court ruled it constitutional. 1833 treasury removed all money from Banks into state banks.
Isolationism A policy of avoiding political or military agreements with other countries.
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