Tudor History - Henry VII's foreign policy

Karima Ranieri
Flashcards by , created over 3 years ago

A level History (Tudors) Flashcards on Tudor History - Henry VII's foreign policy, created by Karima Ranieri on 03/30/2016.

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Karima Ranieri
Created by Karima Ranieri over 3 years ago
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Question Answer
What were the aims of Henry VII's foreign policy? - Obedience of his subjects - Avoid dynastic threats - Internal security - Defensive - Gain recognition - Financial resources -Strengthen monarchy - Avoidance of war (peace)
How successful was Henry VII in achieving these aims in the early years of his reign? France - France had supported Henry's seizure of the throne in 1485: so a one-year truce was established, this was later extended to January 1489.
How successful was Henry VII in achieving these aims in the early years of his reign? Brittany - Brittany supported Henry during his years of exile and so Henry was able to use this link to secure a commercial treaty with them in 1486.
How successful was Henry VII in achieving these aims in the early years of his reign? Scotland - Henry secured better relations with Scotland and signed a three year truce in 1486. - With the assassination of James III in 1488, relations with Scotland were made more secure. (brought young son James IV to the throne)
How successful was Henry VII in achieving these aims in the early years of his reign? Holy Roman Empire - In 1487 Maximilian, the heir to the Holy Roman Empire, concluded a treaty with Britain for one year. (Henry was therefore confident that other countries would not aid rival claimants and that he had been accepted by a number of countries)
How successful was Henry VII's policy towards France? 1. What was the Breton Crisis about? - Brittany independence - France wanted to bring Brittany into the French kingdom. - Regent proposed to marry her brother, Charles VIII, to the daughter and heir of Duke of Brittany. - Duke already arranged for his daughter to marry Maximilian. - in 1488 France sent a force into Brittany to enforce their aim. - Maximilian and Ferdinand of Aragon sent troops to aid Brittany. - Duke of Brittany also asked England for help. - In December 1491 Brittany accepted defeat and Anne of Brittany was married to Charles VIII of France.
How successful was Henry VII's policy towards France? 2. So how effective was Henry's handling of the Breton Crisis? - England wanted to stop the whole of the Channel coast coming under French control. - 1485 French aid made him think twice. - Henry proposed negotiation, Bretons refused and were then defeated by a French army. - Death of Duke of Brittany meant that his daughter became ruler and the French promptly seized her. - England was not strong enough to intervene. - Henry renewed the treaty with Maximilian and this was followed by the Treaty of Redon with Brittany in 1489. - Under the terms of this treaty Henry agreed to send 6000 men, paid for by the Bretons, to help in their defence. - July 1489 Maximilian made peace with France and Spain did too. - Henry was left in a difficult position: he had gone to protect Brittany and had failed. - Henry therefore raised a considerable sum of money to fund a war which had not been fought.
How successful was Henry VII's policy towards France? 3. How successful was Henry's invasion of France in 1492? - A year was spent gathering together an invasion force. - By the time the force arrived in France the campaigning season was almost over. - The French king was more interested in invading Italy. - Treaty of Etaples - Treaty consisted of: no aid given to English rebels, pay the arrears of the Treaty of Picquigny and pay most of Henry's expenses in Brittany. - The result was an annual pension for Henry of approximately £5000 per year. (amounted to some 5% of royal income)
How effective was Henry's policy towards France in the period after the Treaty of Etaples? - League of Venice was established in 1945 (aim of driving France out of Italy) England was not invited to this. - When League was revamped in 1496 as the Holy League, England was invited to join. - Henry also secured a trade agreement with France. - Tried creating a three way agreement through Leage of Cambrai. - Failed to attain anti-Spanish agreeement. - Led to diplomatic isolation.
Why was Henry VII able to avoid conflict with Scotland? - Scotland was more favourably inclined towards Henry as opposed to Richard III. - Death of James III. - Henry maintained contacts at the Scottish courts with the Scottish nobility who favoured better relations with England. - Henry gave the nobles shelter and in 1942 aided their successful attempts in overthrowing anti-English regents. - Pro-English Earl of Angus gained power and resulted in the signing of a nine-year truce between the two countries in 1493. - Departure of Warbeck led to the Truce of Ayton, signed in 1487 and becoming a full treaty in 1499. - Marriage of Henry’s daughter to James IV in August 1503.
How far did Henry pursue a consistent foreign policy with Spain and Burgundy? pt. 1 - Marriage arrangement between Arthur and Catherine of Aragon. - In March 1489 the Treaty of Medina del Campo was signed. - Final marriage agreement with Spain was not made until 1496. - Death of Arthur -> Henry suggested Catherine should marry his second son, Henry. - After discussions and papal dispensation, Catherine was betrothed to Henry in June 1503. - Death of Isabella in 1504 ended the anti-French alliance of England, Spain and the Netherlands. - Isabella’s will stated Ferdinand would return to rule just Aragon.
How far did Henry pursue a consistent foreign policy with Spain and Burgundy? pt. 2 - France and Spain started developing closer relations. -Henry and Philip of Burgundy also developed closer relations. - Henry antagonised Ferdinand as he kept Catherine’s dowry. - Philip was persuaded to sign a treaty with England. - 1506 was a transitioning moment for Spain. With death of Philip, Ferdinand retook Castile and Maximilian took over the regency of Burgundy. - The prospect for a Spanish marriage between Prince Henry and Catherine was therefore more appealing. - Henry proposed marriage and change of policy, Ferdinand refused to agree. - By 1508 Henry abandoned attempts to restore English-Spanish-Burgundian alliance. -He revoked the Magnus Intercursus concession to speed up the prospect of marrying his daughter Mary to Charles and gain Burgundian support. - Henry also offered his son to the niece of Louis XII of France. -By 1508 Henry created an anti-Spanish alliance. - 1508 League of Cambrai.
How important a factor was trade in Henry VII's foreign policy? - English trade brought financial benefits to both the country and monarchy. - Burgundy importance because of cloth trade through Antwerp. - Embargo on trade with Burgundy between 1493-1496. - Magnus intercursus 1496. - Malus Intercursus negotiation. - Treaty with Portugal. - Navigation acts of 1485-86. - Trade in the Mediterranean. - 1490 trade treaty. - Henry was less successful with the Baltic. - Treaties with Denmark and Norway in 1489 and 1490. - Similar policy attempted with Riga in 1499. - 1504 Henry forced into a settlement which restored the favourable position Hanse had enjoyed under Edward IV.