AS Psychology - Social Influence

Flashcards by irenamileva, updated more than 1 year ago


AS - Level Psychology (Paper 1) Flashcards on AS Psychology - Social Influence , created by irenamileva on 04/22/2016.

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Question Answer
What is Conformity? • A change in a person's behaviour or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure form a person or group of people
What are the 3 Types of Conformity? • Internalisation • Identification • Compliance
Describe Internalisation (Conformity). • A deep type of conformity where we take on the majority view becayse we accept it as correct • It leads to a far-reaching & permanent change in behaviour, even when the group is absent
Describe Identification (Conformity). • A moderate type of conformity where we act in the same way with the group because we value it & want to be part of it • But we don't necessarily agree with everything the majority believes
Describe Compliance (Conformity). • A superficial & temporary type of conformity where we outwardly go along with the majority view but privately disagree with it • The change in our behaviour only lasts as long as the group is monitoring us
What are the 2 Explanations for Conformity? • Information Social Influence • Normative Social Influence
Describe Informational Social Influence (ISI) - (Conformity). • An explanation of conformity that says we agree with the opinion of the majority because we believe it is correct, we accept it because we want to be correct • This may lead to internalisation
Describe Normative Social Influence (NSI) - (Conformity). • An explanation of conformity that says we agree with the opinion of the majority because we want to be accepted, gain social approval & be liked • This may lead to compliance
State when Informational & Normative Social Influence are Most Likely to Occur (Conformity). • ISI: most likely to occur in situations nee to a person or situations where there is some ambiguity, so isn't clear what is right, also typical in crisis situations where decisions have to made quickly, also occurs when a person(s) is regarded as being an expert • NSI: most likely to occur with strangers where you may feel concerned about rejection, as well as occur with people you know because we're most concerned about social approval of our friends, it may occur in stressful situations where people have a greater need for social support
Evaluate Research Support for Informational Social Influence. • Lucas et al, 2006 asked students to give answers to maths problems that were easy or difficult, conformity was greater to incorrect answers whenre they were difficult rather than easier ones • This was true for students who rated their maths ability as poor • This study shows that people conform in situations where they feel they dion't know the answer, which is the outcome predicted by the ISI explanation, we look to other people & assume they know better than us & must be right
Evaluate the Individual Differences in Normative Social Influence. • Some research shows that NSI doesn't affect everyone's behaviour in the same way, eg, people who are less concerned with being liked are less affected by NSI than those who care more about being liked • Such people are described as nAffiliators, these are who have greater need for 'affiliation' - a need for being in a relationship w/ others, eg, McGhee & Tevan found that students high in need of affiliation were more likely to conform • This shows that the desire to be liked underlines conformity for some people more than others, therefore there's individual differences in the way people respond
Evaluate Informational & Normative Social Influence Working Together. • The idea of Deutsch & Gerrard's 'two process' approach is that behaviour is either due to ISI or NSI, but truth is more often, both processes are involved, eg, conformity is reduced when there is one other dissenting ppt in the Asch experiment, this dissenter may reduce the power of NSI (as the dissenter provides social support) or of ISI (as there is an alternative source of info) • This shows that it isn't always possible to be sure whether NSI or ISI is at work, thus is the case in lab studies, but is even truer in real-life conformity situations outside the lab, this casts serious doubt over thr view of ISI & NSI as two processes operating independently in conforming behaviour
Describe the Procedure of Asch's Research (Conformity). • Asch, tested conformity by showing pots teo large white cards at a time
Describe the Findings of Asch's Research (Conformity).
What are 3 Variations of Asch's Research? • Group Size • Unanimity • Task Difficulty
What is Group Size? • Asch increased the size of the group by adding more confederates, this increasing the size of the majority
What is Unanimity? • The extent to which all the members of a group agree. In Asch's studies, the majority was unanimous when all the confederates selected the same comparison lines
What is Task Difficulty? • Asch's line-judging task is more difficult when it becomes harder to work out the correct answer
Describe Group Size.
Describe Unanimity.
Describe Task Difficulty.
Evaluate Asch's Research being 'A Child of its Time' (Conformity).
Evaluate Asch's Research being an 'Artificial Situation & Task' (Conformity).
Evaluate a Limited Application of Asch's Findings (Conformity).
What are Social Roles?
Describe the Procedure of The Standford Prison Experiment (SPE).
Describe the Findings of The Standford Prison Experiments (SPE).
Describe the Conclusion Draw of The Standford Prison Experiment (SPE).
Evaluate the Control in The Standford Prison Experiment.
Evaluate the Lack of Realism in The Standford Prison Experiment.
Evaluate the Role of Dispositional Influences in The Standford Prison Experiment.
What is Obedience? • A form of social influence in which an individual follows a direct order • The person issuing thr order is usually a figure of authority, who has the power to punish when obedient behaviour is not forthcoming
Describe the Lead Up to Milgram's Original Obedience Study.
Discuss Whether Conformity Increased of Decreased in Asch's Variations. • Group Size - Conformity increased with group size, but only up to a point, levelling off when the majority was greater than three • Unanimity - This procuded the greatest degree of conformity in the naïve (genuine) participants • Task Difficulty - Conformity increased because naïve participants assume that the majority is more likely to be right
Describe the Procedure of Milgram's Original Obedience Study.
What were the 4 Prods in Milgram's Original Obedience Study? • Prod 01 - 'Please continue/go on' • Prod 02 - 'The experiment requires that you continue' • Prod 03 - 'It is absolutely essential that you continue' • Prod 04 - 'You have no other choice, you must go on'
Describe the Findings of Milgram's Original Obedience Study.
Evaluate Low Internal Validity in Milgram's Study.
Evaluate Good External Validity in Milgram's Study.
Evaluate Supporting Replication in Milgram's Research.
What are Situational Variables? (Obedience: Situational Variables (Milgram's Study)) • In his research Milgram identified several factors that he believed influenced the level of obedience shown by ppts • They're all related to the external circumstances rather than to the personalities of the people involved & include: Proximity, Location & Uniform
What is Proximity? (Obedience: Situational Variables (Milgram's Study)) • The physical closeness or distance of an authority figure to the person they're giving an order to • Also refers to the physical closeness of the teacher to the victim (learner) in Milgram's studies
What is Location? (Obedience: Situational Variables (Milgram's Study)) • The place where an order is issued • The relevant factor that influences obedience is the status or prestige associated with the location
What is Uniform? (Obedience: Situational Variables (Milgram's Study)) • People in positions of authority often have a specific outfit that is symbolic of their authority, eg. police officers & judges • This indicates to thr rest of us who is entitled to expect our obedience
Describe Proximity in Milgram's Studies (Situational Variables).
Describe the Percentage of Fully Obedient Participants in Milgram's Studies (Situational Variables - Proximity). d1a24dbd-a4aa-46b3-a3c1-38a8e6537505.jpeg (image/jpeg)
Describe Location in Milgram's Studies (Situational Variables).
Describe Uniform in Milgram's Studies (Situational Variables).
Evaluate Research Support in Milgram's Studies (Situational Variables).
Evaluate Lack of Internal Validity in Milgram's Studies (Situational Variables).
Evaluate Cross-Cultural Replications in Milgram's Studies (Situational Variables).
What is the Agentic State? (Obedience: Social-Psychological Factors). • A mental state where we feel no personal responsibility for our behaviour because we believe ourselves to be acting for an authority figure, eg. as their agent • This frees us from demands of out consciences & allows us to obey even a destructive authority figure
What is the Autonomous State? (Obedience: Social-Psychological Factors). • The opposite of being in an agentic state is being is an autonomous state • 'Autonomy' means to be independent or free, so a person in an autonomous state feels a sense of responsibility for their own actions
What is the Agentic Shift? (Obedience: Social-Psychological Factors). • The shift from autonomy to agency • Milgram (1974) suggested that this occurs when a person perceives someone se as a figure of authority • The other person has greater power because of their positions in a social heirarchy, in most social groups when one person is in charge, others defer to this person & shift from autonomy to agency
Evaluate Research Support for the Agentic State (Obedience: Social-Psychological Factors).
Evaluate A Limited Explanation for the Agentic State (Obedience: Social-Psychological Factors).
What are Binding Factors? (Obedience: Social-Psychological Factors)
What is the Legitimacy of Authority? (Obedience: Social-Psychological Factors).
What is Destructive Authority? (Obedience: Social-Psychological Factors).
Evaluate Cultural Difference for the Legitimacy of Authority (Obedience: Social-Psychological Factors).
What is the Dispositional Explanation? (Obedience: Dispositional Explanations)
What is the Authoritarian Personality?
Describe Adorno's Procedure (The Authoritarian Personality - Dispositional Explanations).
Describe Adorno's Findings (The Authoritarian Personality - Dispositional Explanations).
Describe Authoritarian Characteristics (Dispositional Explanations).
Describe the Origin of the Authoritarian Personality (Dispositional Explanations).
Evaluate Research Support (The Authoritarian Personality - Dispositional Explanations).
Evaluate the Limited Explanation (The Authoritarian Personality - Dispositional Explanations).
Evaluate Political Bias (The Authoritarian Personality - Dispositional Explanations).
What is the Resistance to Social Influence?
What is Social Support? (Resistance to Social Influence)
What is the Locus of Control (LOC)? (Resistance to Social Influence)
Describe Conformity (Social Support - Resistance to Social Influence)
Describe Obedience (Resistance to Social Influence).
Evaluate Research Support (Resistance to Conformity (Resistance to Social Influence)).
Evaluate Research Support (Resistance to Obedience (Resistance to Social Influence)).
Describe the Continnum (LOC - Resistance to Social Influence).
Describe the Resistance to Social Influence (LOC).
Evaluate the Research Support (LOC - Resistance to Social Influence).
Evaluate Contradictory Research (LOC - Resistance to Social Influence).
What is Minority Influence?
What is Consistency? (Minority Influence)
What is Commitment? (Minority Influence)
What is Flexibility? (Minority Influence)
Describe the Process of Change in Minority Influence?
Evaluate Research Support for Consistency (Minority Influence).
Evaluate Research Support for Depth of Thought (Minority Influence).
Evaluate Artificial Tasks (Minority Influence).
What is Social Influence?
What is Social Change?
What are the 6 Steps in how Minority Influence Creates Social Change? • Drawing Attention • Consistency • Deeper Processing • The Augmentation Principle • The Snowball Effect • Social Cryptomnesia
What is Deeper Processing?
What is The Augmentation Principle?
What is Social Cryptomnesia?
Discuss Lessons from Conformity Research (Social Influence & Social Change).
Discuss Lessons from Obedience Research (Social Influence & Social Change).
Evaluate Research Support for Normative Influences (Social Influence & Social Change).
Evaluate that the Minority Influence is Only Indirectly Effective (Social Influence & Social Change).
Evaluate the Role of Deeper Processing (Social Influence & Social Change).
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