Social policy for education and family

Sam Yarnall
Flashcards by Sam Yarnall, updated more than 1 year ago
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These are flash cards for social policy in education and for family. As well as cards for marketization and policies that promote marketisation. With some information about Gender regimes.

Resource summary

Question Answer
In 1988, what three policies did the Education Reform Act introduce? National Curriculum. OFSTED. Exams.
What does the 1944: Butler Education Act do? It made it compulsory for all students to go into secondary education.
What two advantages are associated with the Butler education act? 1)The brightest 15-20 % went to grammar schools. 2) The technical school allowed less academic students to go to the more of technical school route and that prepared them for work that is more based around labour and practical work.
What three limitations are associated with the Butler Education Act? The students within the modern secondary school tended to be filled with working class students. Many students that went to modern secondary education didn't usually reach their full potential. The eleven plus test was seen as instead of reducing class diversity actually increased class inequalities.
What three types of schools did the tripartite system create? (Butler Education Act) Grammar. Technical. Modern Secondary.
What was the eleven plus test? It was a test in the final years of primary education and this is where they take the test to decide which secondary school is suitable for them.
How did the Education Reform Act aimed to increase diversity? This created diversity as one comprehensive school is not the same to another as each school will be specialised in different topics. With different religions and cultures being in these schools they teach about different religions and about other cultures.
What is a strength of introducing marketization? 1) A parentocracy was created. 2) Creates competition between schools.
What are the three weaknesses that are associated with marketization? 1) Schools focus too much on grades and league table spaces. 2) Too much emphasis on exam performance. 3) The best schools are oversubscribed.
Which policies have promoted marketization? League tables. OFSTED. National Curriculum. Parentocracy. Academies, specialist schools and free school meals. Selection.
How do Marxists criticise marketization? Myth of parentocracy.
What impact does marketization have on different social groups? Gender: girls are selected more. Ethnicity: Schools select certain social groups more. Class: Middle class have more control and benefits through cultural capital.
Which social policies does reduce social class inequality? Sure Start. Education Action Zones. Free school meals. Bursary. Pupil premium. Breakfast club.
Which policies might have increased social class inequality? Unifees. Marketization. School choose students. Private schools. Abolition of education maintenance allowance.
Which policies have reduced gender inequality? Wider educational policies such as National Curriculum. Coursework Reduction. GIST. WISE.
Which policies have increased gender inequality? Marketization. Coursework.
What is China's one rule policy? It was a way of controlling the population in China, limiting couples to have one child per family.
What were Communist Romania's policy in the 1980's? Try to increase birth rate. Restricted contraception and abortion, set up infertility treatment centres, made divorce more difficult, lowered the legal marriage age to 15 and made unmarried an childless couples pay an extra 5 percent tax.
What were Nazi family policies? Encourage healthy and a supposedly 'racially pure' to breed a 'master race,' (restricted access to abortion and contraception.) Official policy to keep women out of the workforce and confine them to 'children, kitchen and church.' The state compulsorily sterilised 375,000 disabled people, many of these were murdered in Nazi concentration camps.
What are the functionalists view of social policy in general? They seem them being a good thing for all of us as it is the state acting in the public interest.
What is a criticism of the functionalist perspective of family? Assumes all member benefits whereas feminists would say only men benefit. Assumes that it is making life better whereas marxists say it is reversed e.g. cuts.
What are the key points of the functionalist view of social policy for the family? Consensus theory. State acts in the interest of policy. Fletcher (1966)- Introduction of health care, education and housing policies had led to the development of the welfare state that supports family functions e.g. NHS means families can more effectively take care if family members when sick.
What is the feminists view of social policy? See social policy as helping to maintaining women's sub-ordnance.
What is the feminist view of social policy in family? See state and policies as patriarchal. Policies based on assumptions about what 'normal' family is like e.e benefits more married couples - leads to 'self-fulfilling prophecy' making it more difficult to live in other family types.
What are some policies that reinforce patriarchy in the family? Tax benefits- assumes husbands are the main wage earner. Custody- Usually given to women, assumes that is there 'natural career.' Child benefits- usually paid to women again assume they are primary career of infants.
What are a criticism for the feminist view of social policy? Equal pay act and sex discrimination act as it benefits both male and female.
What is the marxists view of social policy? See state and social policy as serving capitalism.
What is the new right view of social policy? They have impacted some policy although criticise many policies for undermining the family.
What is the new right viewpoint of social policy with family? Influences Government policy.See traditional nuclear family as being self reliant.Think social policy should avoid anything to undermine the natural, self reliant family. Criticise existing Government policies for undermining the family e.g. council housing.
What is Charles Murray view of social policy? (New right.) Murray- 'perverse incentive' leading to 'dependency cultures'. Suggests that benefits should be cut e.g. stop giving council houses, so less young people will become pregnant. Advocate policies to support families such as taxes favouring married people and the CSA who make absent fathers pay 'child support.' Greater self-reliance and not reliance on the state.
What is a criticism of the new right view of social policy? Feminists say trying to sub-ordinate them. Wrongly assumes that it is natural type of family rather than socially constructed. Cutting benefits may drive people into further poverty.
What impact does the 1967 Abortion Act have on family? Stops having kids. Too much sexual freedom.
What impact does the 1967 sexual offences act have? More same sex families as it partially decriminalised homosexuality in England and Wales.
What impact did the 1969 Divorce Reform Act have on family? Made it easier to divorce by making it simpler and reducing the costs. It also meant that there are less traditional nuclear families.
What impact did the introduction of the contraception pill have, when it was created in the 60's-70's? More sexual freedom as people aren't worried to get pregnant easily.
What impact did the 1970 Equal Pay Act and the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act have? It changes views of women working. It also meant that there are now more women at work.
What impact did the 2002 Adoption and Children Act have? Less traditional family types.
What impact did the 2009 the human fertilisation and embryology act have? It recognised lesbians and their partners as parents in cases of IVF. This reduces the amount of nuclear family types.
What impact does the 2014 Same Sex marriage have? It declined stigma and meant a decline in traditional family types.
What are New Labour's view of social policy and the family? Support traditional nuclear family. Favours married couples and cut benefits to some lone parents. More positive about social policy believing that some state intervention can improve families lives. Some policies at odds with New Right view e.g. adoption rights for unmarried/homosexual couples. Taxation and minimum wage to help children out of poverty. However, some benefits are means- tested and not universal e.g. child benefits.
What is Land's theory of social policy in 1978? (Feminist) 'Assume family is patriarchal'
What is Leach's theory of social policy in 1967? (Feminist) 'Cereal Packet Family.'
Who was the sociologist that theorised gender regimes and when? Eileen Drew in 1995.
What is a familistic gender regime? Family policies based on assumption that husband works to support family and wife stays at home doing domestic and childcare tasks.
What is an individualistic gender regime? Family policies based on belief that husbands and wives should treated the same. Wives are not necessarily reliant on husbands - this means each have separate entitlement to state benefits.
What is the Marxist view of social policy in family? Benefits capitalism. E.g. state pension = when workers too old to generate profit, they are maintained at lowest possible cost. Believe that improvements for working class families e.g. pensions, healthcare are usually result of struggle to extract concessions from capitalist class and can be lost again e.g. Thatcher cutting public services. Argue some policies have come about because of needs of capitalism e.g. 1,450 nurseries built during war time, then after all were shut down.
What did Foucault in 1976 say about social policy which lead to Donzelot in 1977 to apply to the family? Sees power has spread through society and found within all relationships. He sees professionals such as doctors and social workers as exercising their power over others using their knowledge.
What did Donzelot specifically say about social policy and the family? Says that they use their knowledge to control and change families calling this 'there policing of families." Suggests that surveillance not equally targeted at the different families and the cause of crime and anti-social behaviour. These are the families that professionals target from improvements.
What does Donzelot reject? The 'March of Progress' view that social policy and the professionals that it have created a freer society but suggests that social policy is a form of state control of the family.
What does Donzelot research recognise? The importance of professional knowledge as a form of power and control.
In 2007, what did Rachel Condry suggest? That the state seek to control and regulate family life by imposing compulsory parenting orders.
Which perspectives criticise Donzelot? Marxists and Feminists.
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