Migration and Empire flashcards

Flashcards by shona.doyle10, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by shona.doyle10 about 7 years ago


History (Migration & Empire) Flashcards on Migration and Empire flashcards, created by shona.doyle10 on 02/09/2014.

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Question Answer
What were four 'pull' reasons for the Irish immigrating to Scotland? It was cheap to travel there as it was close which was good as people were poor. Wages were up to 6x higher and work was regular. In Glasgow and Dundee there was housing available, even though the conditions were terrible. Scotland was short of workers as industries were expanding so many employed the irish and paid their fares and housing.
What were four of the 'push' reasons that the Irish emigrated to Scotland? 1. Britain was protestant and the South of Ireland was Catholic and the North protestant so many Catholics were discriminated against. 2. Farmers rented land from absentee landlords and when rent increased many were evicted. 3. Many had poor living conditions, living in one room huts made of turf. 4. The population had doubled so less land meant it had to be sub-divided.
Where and why did many Jewish immigrants settle in Scotland? Jewish immigrants came from Eastern Europe. They wanted to escape persecution, poverty and pogroms, it was fast and cheap, many thought of the USA but stayed in Scotland.
What were 3 reasons for Lithuanians coming to Scotland? 1. They wanted to escape persecution by the Tsar. 2. There was high taxation and poverty. 3. There were industrial jobs in Scotland which sometimes came with housing.
What were 3 reasons for Italians coming to Scotland? 1. They suffered low wages and poor living conditions. 2. Their agricultural economy was collapsing and there was little industry. 3. Famines and droughts were not unusual.
Name the places most Irish immigrants settled. Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Paisley, Greenock and Coatbridge.
What happened when the Irish arrived in Scotland? They were often met with angry mobs as they were believed to be taking jobs and lower wages. They went to live with or near other irish immigrants, or created their own communities.
What jobs did many of the Irish do in Scotland? Farming, working in sugar factories, hawkers, steam boat stokers, waste merchants and coal miners.
What were living conditions like for many of the Irish due to the lack of housing? There were no local services such as no sewers, drains or water supplies. The air was dirty due tot he smoke from coal fires and local factory fumes. The tenements were small and overcrowded.
Why was disease common and what types of diseases were there? People didn't eat balanced diets, the water was contaminated, there was less medical understanding and people live in overcrowded homes. The most common were Cholera, Typhus and Diphtheria.
Why did the Irish and Scots often clash? The Catholic Irish found it difficult to get on with the Protestant Scots so they went to live with or near each other. But the Irish protestant poor were very similar to the Scottish protestant poor so found it easier to get on. Celtic and Rangers evolved from this clash to give the Irish something to belong to.
What did the Catholic church do for the Irish immigrants? 1.It was their social lives (Trips, lectures, shows & sports) 2.It was a meeting place for them 3.Sports like football grew from the church (Celtic & Rangers) 4.Helped the poor by providing money and goods 5.It developed schools for the Catholic children
What were the 4 main reasons that Scots emigrated? 1.Poverty (loss of jobs due to machines, trade poor, competition) 2.Highland clearances (hard to farm, famine, landowners moved people, economy collapsed) 3. Highland life (back-breaking work, no government help, no pensions, hard to pay rent) 4.Missionaries (America/Africa/India, convert people to Christianity, often paid for, feeling of duty)
What help was available to Scots who wanted to emigrate? Landlords wanted people off the land so paid for the journeys abroad. The British Women's Emigration Association selected girls to move abroad and their travel and hostels were organised and paid for. The government gave £10 000 to help highlanders move, the Overseas settlement committee was formed to settle ex-servicemen abroad and the Empire Settlement Act ensured £3m a year was spent on emigrants travel etc.
Where were the 6 main places Scots emigrated to? 1.Canada (employment in farming, popular in early 19th cent and '20s, scots 3rd largest group there, 20 000 1839-49) 2. America (popular late 19th cent, business and farming opportunities, warm climate) 3. South Africa (Gold & diamonds discovered late 19th cent, large number of scots went) 4. Australia (expensive, convict settlement first, gold discovery helped, 90 000 1850s, 1880 fastest growing economy) 5. New Zealand (british colony, 1901 48 000, 1/5 scots) 6. India (already many there, helped with implementing the changes the empire wanted)
What did Scots in England do and give examples? Got paid for prospering as farmers, engineers, businessmen, ship owners, administrators and politicians. Katherine, Duchess of Atholl first women MP in 1923
Why were Scots successful in their new homes? They had a range of skills, some had their own capital, their elementary and higher education helped too.
How did Scots contribute to the Australian economy? Western Oz attracted middle class scots professionals, Scots were in charge of the largest sheep runs, industrial scots succeeded by having links with other scots, agriculturalists arrived with capital, mariners and seamen came too and many doctors, advocates, merchants.
Why did Scots go to America? It attracted tradesmen, factory operators and manufacturers, it had a developed economy, 1820s many went for the carpet manufacturing, thread making firms wages were 2x higher in Newark, New Jersey.
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