PoR GCSE Science and Religion

p.northre
Flashcards by p.northre, updated more than 1 year ago
p.northre
Created by p.northre over 7 years ago
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Flashcards on PoR GCSE Science and Religion, created by p.northre on 02/16/2014.

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Question Answer
What happened on day 1 in the Genesis creation story? God created Earth and heavens. Earth was formless and empty. God said "Let the be light". God separated light from darkness. Called the light "day" and the dark "night"
What happened on day 2 of the Genesis creation story? God said "let there be an expanse between the two waters". He called this expanse "sky"
What happened on day 3 of the Genesis creation story? God said "let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear"
What happened on day 4 of the Genesis creation story? God produced vegetation on the land. He made the Sun and the moon and the stars.
What happened on day 5 of the Genesis creation story? He said "let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the Earth". He blessed them.
What happened on day 5 in the Genesis creation story? God produced livestock and wild animals. He then made "man in his own image". He let humans rule over the earth and over all the creatures. He said "Be fruitful and increase in number" God gave the humans plants and fruit to eat.
What happened on day 7 in the Genesis creation story? God rested. He saw everything he'd made "and God saw it was good"
What happens in the Hindu creation story? Before creation, no heaven, earth, sky. Nothingness + "endless sea of darkness". Snake floated on top of sea with Vishnu. Peace + silence. Vishnu slept. "Deep humming sound began to vibrate the seas with a low Aum". Vishnu awoke. Night ended. Dawn broke + petals of a lotus flower bloomed in Vishnu's naval revealing Brahma. Vishnu told Brahma "It's time to begin". Vishnu sent wind over waters, making waves. He + serpent vanished leaving Brahma.Brahma broke up lotus flower in 3 parts, one heavens another earth and another skies. Grass, flowers, trees + plants "to clothe the naked earth". Animals and insects, birds and fish. Gave all creatures senses
What is a Fundamentalist? Person who believes in basics of religion. Believe that what is in sacred text is accurate, factual record that can't be questioned
How do Fundamentalists approach the Genesis stories? Holy Spirit "dictated" Bible and no one should question teachings. Bible is God's words, nothing but truth. Some would say that the days were 24 hours and that the universe was made 6000 years ago Some would say the days might be longer.
What is the big Bang Theory? Around 14 billion years ago, in great flash, universe was created from tiny dot which all energy from universe was compressed expanded. Small, dense, hot. POINT OF SINGULARITY. Expanded to size of tennis ball then to huge cloud of super-hot gases. Cooled over time. Some gases clumped together to make stars that burnt. When stars ran out of fuel, exploded showering heavy elements (EG carbon) into universe. SUPERNOVAS. Allowed planets to form with stars. One of these stars is our Sun and one planet is Earth.
What is the steady state theory? Alternative scientific theory. Accepts fact universe is expanding, but says universe is infinite in time. Physicists (EG Fred Hoyle) would say limited amount of matter in universe + universe is changing in form. Not many scientists agree
What do the Big Bang theory and Steady State theory suggest about the universe? Some say universe will carry on growing until everything is stretched so thin it evaporates to nothing Some say reach a point of maximum expansion and will collapse on itself or "big crunch" In the next 5 billion years the Sun will become red giant and will have swallowed Earth.
How would liberals explain the stories of creation and the role of God? Creation stories (eg Gen 1 + 2) told by ordinary people in non-scientific age to help own generation understand about nature of life + universe. Believed God was creator and he had special role for humans. Trying to find meaning behind creation. Not factual account of historical events. Liberals say it has a moral: God made EVERYTHING, he made everything GOOD, humanity is HIGHEST POINT OF CREATION. No God, life has no value
Explain the views of a liberal (scientist) on creation. Big Bang Theory shows HOW the universe was made, God is WHY the universe was made. Must be a REASON why the point of singularity occurred. God is omnibenevolent, transcendent and omnipotent. God said "let there be light" (gen 3) and there was light, like in Big Bang Theory.
Explain what a Fundamentalist would say about the Big Bang and God going together. Everything in Genesis LITERALLY happened, as Big Bang wasn't mentioned, didn't happen. Saying God caused Big Bang is "gap filling" . The Big Bang says universe is 14 billion years old whereas Christians have worked out universe is 6000 years old.Big Bang contradicts so didn't happen
Explain what an atheist would say about science and religion going together No EVIDENCE of God, why believe something that doesn't exist? Strong evidence of Big Bang (background radiation). Big Bang Theory says First Cause of universe is some kind of sub-atomic event. Means the first cause is physical event, not spiritual. Therefore God didn't create universe.
What is evolution? process made popular by Charles Darwin that describes how simpler life-forms gradually changed and adapted more complex life-forms
Explain how evolution began and took shape. Complex molecules built up in the sea. Formation of DNA-complex molecule which can make copies of itself. Complex structures form around DNA. Those adapted to surrounding reproduce. Those aren't well adapted die out. More complex structures form as small cells group together-early fish. Adapted ones survive and reproduce. Food on land-some fish evolve and adapt to breathe + walk on land-become first reptiles. Some reptiles become very big (dinosaurs). Conditions change (gets very cold). Reptiles not well adapted-large ones go extinct. Mammals have fur and warm blood-can survive and reproduce. Humans very successful mammal-probably evolved 200,000 years ago from primates.
Give an example of evolution PEPPERED MOTH 2 varieties: pale and dark. Rest on birch trees. Before Industrial Revolution, birch trees were pale so dark stood-easily spotted by predators. Pale variety flourished. During Industrial Revolution, trees were covered in soot and became darker, pale moths stood out and were eaten. Dark moths flourished. Today, trees pale so paler moths flourshing
Give 3 arguments against evolution Gaps in fossil records. Evolution is slow so evidence is presupposition + interpretation of incomplete material. Complexity of animals and organs suggest special creation, not "haphazard" evolution. Undermines role of perfect God. Genesis says God made everything perfect from start. If evolution is real, God is not perfect and therefore limited + not God-religious people would say evolution couldn't occur. Fundamentalist believers say evolution not in sacred texts-didn't take place
Give a religious argument FOR evolution God could've used evolution to create animals. Gaps in evolution-God could have made the animals better, changing the design until it's just right
Give 2 problems with evolution for religious believers. If God believed everything was equal the eagles wouldn't throw the weakest chic out of the nest. God saw his creation, and it was "very good". Evil in world is not very good. God is omnibenevolent and omnipotent, wouldn't want animals to suffer. INCONSISTENT TRIAD
Give 2 justifications for evil in the natural world as a result of evolution for believers. Evil could've been created after FIRST SIN Animals are more basic organisms than humans
What is meant by natural selection? If an organism is well adapted to it's environment, more likely to pass on it's genes to next generation. If not well adapted, less likely to pass on it's genes (dies out).
Give 2 pieces of EVIDENCE for evolution Fossils provide evidence and forms of dating to show age. Some organs in some animals don't do anything EG our appendix, bones to attach back legs in whales. This is evidence because the organs are useless but probably were needed at one point, suggesting we have evolved.
What is the Darwinian view? named after Charles Darwin who pioneered idea of evolution; idea that creatures gradually change and adapted to suit environment "survival of fittest"
Name 3 negative implications of the Darwinian theory for humanity Humans are simply another, slightly more advanced, form of animal. Creation of human beings was lucky mutation. Humans have no more right to be on Earth than other animals. In comparison to dinosaurs (dominated earth 160 million years) humans have little importance. Human life has no value-except short time individual is alive. This approach could create negative attitude to person's life.
Give a positive implication of the Darwinian theory on humanity Each human is important because what matters is RACE as a whole, each person contributes to the race by passing on genes. This approach more focused on group aspect of human race Evolution has lead up to me and will go out from me, giving me purpose-if I treat each individual as important I am recognising value human race as whole, rather than each individual.
Name 4 beliefs in monotheistic religions of the role of humanity as shown in creation stories Judaism, Christianity + Islam share common understanding Humans made in image and likeness of God, individual qualities reflect God's qualities. Humans share in life force of God in way no other animals do. Humans have command from God to multiply and fill Earth. Humans have power over animals-shown by way Adam names each animal. Humans given free will Humans have duty to care for Earth (stewards of creation) Humans are only animal God made covenant with.
Explain beliefs in Hinduism and Buddhism about the role of humanity as shown in creation stories Reincarnation and rebirth. Humans, life is about building up good karma. Humans on higher plane of life, allows them to make choices. Means quality of life is more fulfilling for humans. Animals can't escape cycle of reincarnation and rebirth, humans can. Animal existence is below human existence. World and this life are thought of as illusions.
Why don't Buddhists and Hindus think much about scientific theories such as evolution? Both religions accept need to reach beyond immediate, so value of human being is in how he or she deals with life now, not worrying about what theoretical value any scientific theory might give to human life.
What are Fundamentalist views on the Bible and evolution? All is correct-ESPECIALLY Genesis 1-3. Some would accept 'day' may be more than 24hours. God made each animal as specific creation, particularly human beings. Evolution contradicts words of God. "Let the land produce living creatures... and it was so". Thus evolution is rejected by some believers. Words in Bible were given by God, God cannot lie.
What are Fundamentalist views intelligent design and evolution? "Intelligent design movement" is a group of Fundamentalist believers who accept Biblical accounts of creation are basically true, but also accept there's been changes + mutations in animal kingdom over ages. Rejects idea of random mutations, believe God can work through these changes, that God directs the changes to bring variation in creation. God is intelligence behind design, the one driving changes forward.
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