Abnormal Psychology Chapter 3

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Abnormal Psychology: Integrative Approach 3rd Canadian Edition Barlow Grant MacEwan University

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Question Answer
Clinical Assessment systematic evaluation & measurement of psychological, biological, social factors in an individual presenting w/ a possible psychological disorder
Diagnosis DSM V process of determining whether particular problem afflicting individual meets all the criteria for psychological disorder
reliability Degree to w/h a measurement is consistent.
interrater reliability. - carefully designing assessment devices & conducting research to assure same answers
test-retest reliability -testing and results are stable over time
Validity whether a technique or design measures what it is supposed to measure.
concurrent/ descriptive validity comparing results of one assessment w/ another
predictive validity how your assessment will predict future
Standardization a certain set of standards or norms is determined for a technique to make its use consistent across different measures: age, race, gender, socioeconomic status
5 Clinical assessment strategies and procedures 1) clinical interview 2) mental status exam 3) physical examination 4) Bhav observation 5) psychological testing
clinical interview gathers past and current Bhav, attitudes, emotions, detailed history of individuals llife, interpersonal history, upbringing, educational history
Mental status exam systematic observation of somebody else's Bhav, inorder to gain psychological disorder
5 Mental status exam steps 1. Appearance & Bhav 2. Thought processes, delusions, hallucinations 3. Mood & affect, depression 4. Intellectual functioning 5. Sensorium, general awareness of surroundings
Unstructured interviews follow no systematic format for interview
Semi structured interview made up of questions that have been carefully phrased and tested to eleict useful information in a consistent manner to gain important info.
persistence distress how often a thought or Bhav occurs and how much distress it causes
resistance types of attempts patient makes to get rid of obsession
physical examination ability to see toxic state could be caused by bad food, type of medicine through Bhav, cognition, mood
Behavioral assessment uses direct observation to assess formally an individual's thoughts, feelings, Bhav in specific situations or contexts, info gathered explains disorder
target Bhav identified & observed w/ goal of determining factors that seem to influence those Bhav.
ABCs of Observation 1) antecedents 2) Bhav 3) Consequences
formal observation involves identifying specific Bhav that are observable & measurable (operational definition)
self-monitoring/ observation observing one's own Bhav to find patterns
Bhav rating scales used as assessment tools b4 treatment and periodically during treatment to assess changes in persons Bhav
reactivity can distort any observation data, since ppl change their activity while being watched
projective tests methods in w/h ambiguous stimuli such as pictures & inferring what they mean to person
Comprehensive system how the rorschach test should be presented to create validity, reliability
Thematic Apperception Test TAT consists of 31 cards, 30 pictures, one blank, only 20 are used, create dramatic story
personality inventories MMPI, true or false, easy to administer, L-lie scale, F-Infrequency scale, K-Defensiveness scale
MMPI-2 does not take into account composition of general population
PCL-R, Revised Psychopathy Checklist - constellation of Bhav and characteristics that some refer to psychopathy, created by Robert Hare
intelligence quotient calculating intelligence through using mental age
deviation ID deviation score is tested against others at the same age.
3 verbal scales and performance scales 1) WAIS-III 2) WISC-III 3) WPPSI-RI
Neuropsychological testing Sophisticated tests developed to pinpoint locations of brain dysfunction
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test in children asked to draw cards that are shown in order to see how many mistakes are made, if to many implies dysfunction, screen instrument
4 Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery 1) Rhythm test 2)strength of grip test 3) tactile performance test 4) determines precise location of damage
false positive neuropsychological test, assessment error in w/h no pathology is reported when none is actually present
false negative neuropsychological test, assessment error in w/h no pathology is noted when it is actually present
neuroimaging ability to look inside brain through technology
SPECT - single photon emission computed tomography tracer substance is less accurate then PET
psychological assessment measurable changes in Nervous system that reflects emotional and psychological events
EEG - electroencephalogram measures electrical activity in the brain w/ electrodes
ERP- event related potential, evoked potential meaning stimuli
alpha waves healthy relaxed brain patterns
delta waves slower, more irregular waves, deepest relaxed stage of sleep
electrodermal responding skin conductance, galvanic skin response - GSR, measures seat gland controlled by peripheral NS
classification very board, any effort to construct groups or categories & to assign objects or ppl to these categories on basis of their shared attributed & relations
taxonomy classification of entities for scientific purposes
nosology taxonomic system to psychological or medical phenomena or clinical areas
nomenclature names or labels of disorders that make up nosology
ICD-10 International classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, by WHO
classical categorical approach Emil Kraepelin study of psychopathology, clear underlining cause for disorders
dimensional approach variety of cognition, moods, Bhav w/ w/h patient presents and quantify them on a scale
prototypical approach system for categorizing disorders using both essential, defining characteristics & a range of variation on other characteristics
three different approaches need... 1) validity 2) reliability
criterion validity outcome is the criterion by w/h we judge usefulness of category
5 Diagnoses b4 1980 1) great observations 2) 1959 had 9 systems of classification 3) Kraepelin believed there was biological basis for all dysfunction 4) 1948 WHO added mental health disorders to ICD 5) many diff systems in diff. countries
DSM-III 1980 3 major changes 1) atheoretical approach to diagnosis 2) specificity & detail w/ w/h criteria for IDing a disorder were listed from reliability & validity 3) allowed individuals w/ possible psychological disorders to be rated in 5 dimensions
multiaxial system allowed clinician to gather info about functioning in a number of areas rather then limiting
3 DSM IV, 1994 1) all changes made based on sound scientific data 2) compatible w/ ICD 3) distinction b/w organically based disorders and psychological based disorders
DSM IV, 5 Axis I. anxiety disorder II. Personality disorder III. identifiable medical condition IV. psychosocial, environmental problems V. current functioning status 1-100
3 DSM IV cultural add ons 1) is person are of current culture 2) does client use culturally accurate terms to describe condition 3) how does the person define disability, disorder, sickness
Comorbidity presence of two or more disorders in one individual
3 DSM IV criticisms 1) emphasizing reliability over validity 2) focusing on old definitions over new scientific knowledge 3) complexity of categories and new information
labelling applying a name to a phenomenon or a pattern of Bha., can acquire negative connotation or be applied erroneously to person rather than Bhav
primary care setting offices, clinics, hospitals
disability payments CPP- Canada Pension Plan for Canadians w/ disability
medico-legal system people who qualify under disorders, can get government or private insurance companies to pay financial reimbursement or disability payments
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) bias, stigmatization: women who have severe emotional reactions in late luteal phase of menstrual cycle
2 Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) criticisms 1) little scientific evidence to support 2) stigmatization against women
3 PMS stats 1) occurs in 20-40% of women 2) 4.6% experience severe symptoms 3) symptoms occur at different types for women
3 worldwide study of PMS 1) 5-8% of women severe symptoms 2) 14-18% moderate symptoms 3) PMDD is most likely seen as a mood disorder and not a endocrine system dysfunction
DSM V 3 changes 1) delete disorders from appendix 2) promote it to main manual 3) retain in appendix