Psychoanalytical Theory

Jacques Jansen van Vuuren
Flashcards by , created over 3 years ago

The Psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud

Jacques Jansen van Vuuren
Created by Jacques Jansen van Vuuren over 3 years ago
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Question Answer
What are the three assumptions of the person according to the psychoanalytical theory? Psycho-social Conflict Biological and Psychic determinism Mechanistic assumption
Explain Psycho-social Conflict The person is caught up in constant conflict between drives within the psyche and the demands and norms of society
What is biological and psychic determinism? Human drives are based within the body. The drives are localized within the body in the Id part of the psyche. Societal rules are gradually absorbed into the superego part of the psyche. Therefore, the conflict that determines all behaviour takes place within the psyche.
What is the mechanistic assumption? Human beings function in a mechanistic way. Physical principles of energy consumption, conservation and transformation are regarded as valid for human functioning. The steam engine can be taken as a suitable analogy for psychic functioning.
How do the personality structures develop? The Id is the innate primitive component of the psyche. The Ego develops from the Id through contact with external world to ensure the survival of the individual. The Superego develops from the Ego as an intra-psychically representative of society's moral codes.
What are the three primary goals of the structures (Id, Ego and Superego)? *Ensure survival of individual *Allow experience of as much pleasure as possible *Minimize experience of guilt
What are the three levels of consciousness? And what is contained within these levels? Conscious - currently aware thoughts/feelings Preconscious - information recalled without much effort Unconscious - forbidden drives and memories causing pain or guilt or anxiety
How does the Id function? Primary process - Not capable of thought or rationality. No contact with external reality. Only form of drive satisfaction through wish fulfillment. Pleasure principle - Seeks immediate and complete satisfaction without regard for anything else
How does the Ego function? Secondary process - Evaluates context before action is taken. Can weigh up if and when action is taken. Reality principle - Ego takes physical and social reality into account by using perception, rationality, memory and learning.
What is the relationship between the Id, Ego and Superego? The Ego adapts through life. The Id threatens the Ego with tension if drives are not satisfied and the Superego with guilt and punishment to follow moral rules. The physical environment does not always provide satisfactory objects for drive satisfaction.
How does the Superego function? Moral principle - punishes the individual by feelings of guilt for immoral wishes and behaviour and holds relentless, perfectionistic ideal of moral behaviour. The punishing element is the conscience. The positive element the ego-ideal.