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Developmental Flashcards on Attachment, created by sterling-l on 04/29/2013.

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Created by sterling-l almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Poor quality of child care, not its quantity or timing, is the detrimental influence. 3rd variables eg poverty etc were not controlled. Inadequacy of the S.S. as a measure of attachment for infants used to repeated separations. Results from NICHD STUDY ( 1997) support the dual risk phenomenon ( Belsky, 2009) Infants were less likely to be securely attached when mothers had low sensitivity AND they experienced: 1. Low quality day care. 2. More than 10 hours day care per week. 3. More than 1 child care arrangement.
However, Lamb, Sternberg & Prodromidis (1992) found that extent of non-maternal daycare was not significantly associated with attachment classification. Insecure attachment was significantly more common among those who entered care between 7 and 12 months, rather than earlier. Secure attachment was significantly more common among infants in exclusive maternal care.
attachment theory would predict that repeated separations from the mother would undermine the development of secure attachment. infants exposed to 20+ hours day care per week were more likely to be classified as insecure and to avoid mother on reunion in the SS, than infants experiencing less than 20 hours Belsky and Rovine (1988)
NON –MATERNAL DAYCARE mothers’ relience on non-maternal day increased as they frequently return to work during infants’ 1st year ( Belsky,2001). Bowlby (1969) monkeys highlighted the stress associated with separation of infants from mothers.
Quality of attachment in infancy predicts: sociability in early, middle and late adulthood( Van Lange et al, 1997). predicted sexual dysfunction in adult males ( Kinzl et al, 1996). “ Mother love in infancy is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health” ( Bowlby, 1953 ).
THE IMPORTANCE OF ATTACHMENT FOR LATER PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT "the bedrock on which stable and self-reliant personality is built ” (Bowlby,1973) Correlational studies have found that children who are securely attached are: more popular and less aggressive in nursery school ( Sroufe, 1983). Better at problem solving aged 2 years (Frankel et al, 1990). More creative in symbolic play when 2 (Pipp et al. 1995). Less likely to manifest behavioural problems in upper school ( Erikson, 1985). More sociable to strange adults (Grossman + Grossman, 1991). Higher self confidence (Sroufe et al 1993). Better language development aged 3 ( Belsky et al, 2002).
Child develops INTERNAL WORKING MODELS OF SELF AND OTHERS that shape and explain our experience. Bowlby (1973) Strength of predictions depends on intervening variables. Working models can change if child’s treatment by others significantly changes. Erikson ( 1985)
Third Party Influences on Quality of Attachment Secure attachment more common when caregiver has a supportive partner (Finger et al, 2009). Economic stress eg: poverty = reduced maternal sensitivity = insecurity (Raikes and Thompson, 2005). Emotional stress eg:domestic violence = insecure attachment ( Raikes and Thompson, 2005).
Strengths of Strange Situation test Consistency in the overall distribution of attachment types found across all cultures (Van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg 1988) high reliability as Wartner, Grossman, Fremmer-Bombik & Suess (1994) found 78% of the children were classified in the same way at the ages of 1 and 6.
Criticisms of strange situation test Fails to prove how an infant would react to another care giver Measures only the current status of infant-caregiver relationship. Doesnt have ecological validity
Strange situation test most common technique for measuring the quality of attachments. (Mary Ainsworth 1978) infant is observed playing/exploring while caregiver + stranger enter and leave the room. Infant's reaction to the departure + return of its caregiver is assessed.
Quality of attachment is assessed through observing overt behaviour eg: proximity, eye contact, clinging + crying. Pattern of overt behaviour determines the quality of attachment not frequency.
Determinants for each subtype of attachment Overzealous parenting→ Type A attachment: Avoidant ( Isabella ,1991 ); Inconsistent parenting/unreliable parenting .→Type C attachment: Resistant/Ambivalent ( Teti et al, 1995). Abusive parenting →Type D attachment: Disorganised. ( Cassidy & Berlin, 1994 )
Main + Solomon identified a 4th quality of attachment for infants who defied Ainsworths 3 qualities. D: Disorganised 5% Infant becomes stressed when caregiver leaves but appears confused & dazed when caregiver returns. May move close to caregiver + then freeze. Main and Hesse (1993) found that most of the care givers of the infant were depressed.
Ainsworth identified 3 different qualities of attachment A: Insecure avoidant 20% Doesnt use cargiver as a safe base to explore. Show little distress/emotion when caregiver leaves. B: Secure 65% Will use caregiver as a safebase to explore. Upset when caregiver leaves + happy when they return. C: Resistant/Ambivalent 10% Doesnt use cargiver as safebase to explore. Highly distressed when care giver leaves. Remain close to caregiver once they return but are resistant to physical contact.
Affectional bond: long + enduring. Partner is not interchangable - desires to remain close to partner. (Ainsworth, 1989) Parents develop an affectional bond with their infants not an attachment.
Numerous studies confirm the importance of emotional availability on the part of the caregiver ( Biringen, 2000). Most studies are correlational very few experimental.
DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTACHMENT QUALITIES “ --the security of infant-mother attachment is a multi-determined developmental outcome” ( Thompson, 2010). 4 general characteristics of maternal behavior: 1: sensitivity-insensitivity, 2: acceptancerejection, 3: cooperation-interference, + 4: accessibility-ignoring (Ainsworth 1969)
Attachment: the first social relationship an infant forms based on the sense of security, comfort/safe base. (Bee & Boyd, 2007) Quality of attachment developed is determined by many different factors.