Europe-related dates

Flashcards by lizzie.lambrou, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by lizzie.lambrou over 7 years ago


A Levels History (Dates/evidence cards) Flashcards on Europe-related dates, created by lizzie.lambrou on 03/16/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
1950 Schuman Plan: European and Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). Integrated French & German heavy industry. Attlee's government refused to join: "The Durham miners won't wear it, I'm afraid"
1952 European Defence Community (EDC) treaty signed but the need for the plan seemed to diminish and it was replaced by the EEC
1955 The Messina conference set out plans for the EEC. 'The Six': France, West Germany, Italy, Benelux. British delegation sent on behalf of foregin minister Macmillan, observed but did not join
1957 Treaty of Rome launched the EEC
1959/1960 European Free Trade Association (EFTA), with Britain as a founder member. Not as successful as EEC - consisted of outer 7 rather than inner 6: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal & Switzerland
1961 First application to EEC by Macmillan government. Rejected in '63 - vetoed by France (de Gaulle)
1962 (Labour's attitudes to Europe) Gaitskell fought passionately against Britain's first EEC epplication - "it would be the end of a thousand years of history". Wilson = more ambivalent (pro-American & Commonwealth but could see economic advantage). Roy Jenkins & George Brown = enthusiastic but Labour left = hostile
1967 Second EEC application (made by Wilson government) rejected. France and de Gaulle again
1971 Agreement in principle for Britain's accession to the EEC (by now, Britain's PM was the passionately pro-European Heath and the French president was Georges Pompidou)
1973 Eventual EEC accesion (under Heath government), along with Ireland and Denmark
1975 EEC referendum held by Wilson gov. - confirmed British membership (decisive margin of victory by more than 2:1). Mainly held to get round internal divisions within Labour
1984 The UK rebate: Thatcher's persistent campaign for Britain to be given a rebate by the EEC eventually achieved success. Pleased supporters at home, irritated her Europen partners
1986 Single European Act: Thatcher was enthusiastic about the Single European Market when it was negotiated in 1985-86
1986 Anglo-French agreement to build Channel Tunnel (opened in '94). Showed Thatcher's good working relationship with French president Francois Mitterrand & was a symbolic link between Britain and France
1988 Turning point. Thatcher's "no, no, no" speech in Bruges. Emphasised that the EEC was a trade association between sovereign states - she was resolutely opposed to federalism & an "ever closer political union". Infuriated many European leaders & raised doubts about Britain's commitment. Enthused Eurosceptics in Britain (the Bruges Group)
1990 'The Sun' headline "UP YOURS DELORS!" - referred to Jacques Delors, president of the European Commission. Thought the EEC should be moving towards political union > Thatcher frequently clashed with him (egged on by tabloid press)
1990, comment about Helmut Kohl made by Thatcher to her foreign policy adviser "That man is so German!" - Thatcher had a fractious relationship with German chancellor, Helmut Kohl. Agreed on many policies but personalities clashed > Thatcher's anti-German view of European history
1988-> (re end of Cold War) As the prospect of German reunification came closer, Thatcher's fears of a united Germany dominating Europe intensified
10th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 Lavish celebrations - Gorbachev & Bush Senior invited but Thatcher was not
1991 (Major quote) He promised to 'place Britain at the very heart of Europe'
1992 Maastricht Treaty: turned EEC into EU, extending inter-government cooperation. Major secured a number of 'opt-outs' for Britain (the euro, the Social Chapter). A. Seldon: Major achieved more than Thatcher would've been able to
1999 Launch of the euro
2001 Treaty of Nice: reform of institutions to cope with expansion to 25 member states. Britain took a leading role in the negotiations (led by Blair)
2003 Invasion of Iraq by American-led coalition opened up deep divisions between some European countries & Britain
2004 Expansion of EU from 15 to 25 states (Czech Republic, Cyprus, Lithuania, Poland etc.)
2005 G8 summit at Gleneagles - personal triumph for Blair's diplomacy. Blair took the lead in European initiatives on issues like climate change, world trade and aid for Africa
2006 G8 summit at Heiligendamm. Support from the German chancellor, Angela Merkel, ensured that the initiatives begun at Gleneagles were carried forward
2007 Enlargement of EU to 27 states (Bulgaria & Romania). Treaty of Lisbon replaced the 2004 Rome Treaty that was never ratified, but it was a new, diluted scheme which aroused considerable controversy
By 2007 (Blair's achievements) Personal prestige in Europe still high - excellent relationships with new French president Nicolas Sarkozy & German chancellor Angela Merkel. But few concrete achievements: progress on climate change & 'making poverty history' = frustratingly slow. EU treaties
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