Water on Land Key Terms Flashcards

John Ditchburn
Flashcards by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE and A Level AQA A GCSE Physical Paper 1 (5 Water on the Land (Rivers)) Flashcards on Water on Land Key Terms Flashcards, created by John Ditchburn on 03/23/2014.

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John Ditchburn
Created by John Ditchburn over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
Erosion the shaping of a landscape, for example by rivers, involving the removal of material
Transportation the carrying of sediment downstream from the point where it has been eroded to where it is deposited
Deposition the dumping (deposition) of sediment that has been transported by a river
Channel the part of the river valley occupied by the water itself.
Hydraulic action the power of the volume of water moving in the river
Abrasion happens when larger loads carried by the river hits the bed and banks, causing bits to break off
Attrition the knocking together of stones and boulders, making them gradually smaller and smoother
Solution the dissolving of rocks and minerals by rainwater. This is a means of transportation as well as an erosion process
Load material of any size carried by the river
Vertical erosion downwards erosion, for example when a river gouges out a deep valley
Lateral erosion sideways erosion, for example in a river channel at the outside bend of a meander
Traction the rolling along of the largest rocks and boulders
Saltation the bouncing movement of small stones and grains of sand along the river bed
Suspension small material carried (suspended) within the water.
Long profile a line representing the course of the river from its source (relatively high up) to its mouth where it ends, usually in a lake or the sea, and the changes in height along its course
Cross profile a line that represents what it would be like to walk from one side of a valley, across the channel and up the other side
Waterfall the sudden, and often vertical, drop of a river along its course
Gorge a narrow, steep-sided valley
Meander a bend or curve in the river channel
Oxbow lake a horseshoe or semi- circular area that used to be a meander. Oxbow lakes are cut off from a supply of water and so will eventually become dry
Floodplain the flat area next to the river channel, especially in the lower part of the course. This is a natural area for water to spill onto when the river reaches the top of its banks
Levees raised banks along the course of a river in its lower course. They are formed naturally but can be artificially increased in height
Precipitation any source of moisture reaching the ground, e.g. rain, snow, frost
Interception water being prevented from reaching the surface by trees or grass
Surface storage water held on the ground surface, e.g. puddles
Infiltration water sinking into soil/rock from the ground surface
Soil moisture water held in the soil layer
Percolation water seeping deeper below the surface
Groundwater water stored in the rock
Transpiration water lost through pores in vegetation
Evaporation water lost from ground/vegetation surface
Surface run-off (overland flow) water flowing on top of the ground
Throughflow water flowing through the soil layer parallel to the surface
Groundwater flow water flowing through the rock layer parallel to the surface
Water table current upper level of saturated rock/ soil where no more water can be absorbed
Discharge the volume of water passing a given point in a river at any moment in time
Drainage basin area from which a river gets its water. The boundary is marked by an imaginary line of highland known as a watershed
Flood or storm hydrograph a line graph drawn to show the discharge in a river in the aftermath of a period of rain.
Flashy a hydrograph that responds quickly to a period of rain so that it has a high peak and a short lag time
Relief height and slope of land
Impermeable rock that does not allow water to pass through.
Porous rock that allows water to soak into it via spaces between particles.
Pervious rock that allows water to pass through it via vertical joints and horizontal bedding planes.
Urbanisation the increase in the proportion of people living in cities, resulting in their growth.
Floods these occur when a river carries so much water that it cannot be contained by its banks and so it overflows on to surrounding land – its floodplain.
Soil erosion the removal of the layer of soil above the rock where plants grow.
Hard engineering building artificial structures aimed at controlling natural processes.
Soft engineering this option tries to work with the natural river system and involves avoiding building on areas especially likely to flood, warning people of a possible flood and planting trees to increase lag time.
Dam an artificial structure designed to hold back water to create a reservoir
Reservoir commonly an artificial lake formed behind a dam and used for water supply.
Reservoir an artificial lake formed behind a dam and used for water supply
Straightening meanders making the river follow a more direct, rather than its natural course, so that it leaves an area more quickly
Floodplain zoning controlling what is built on the floodplain so that areas that are at risk of flooding have low-value land uses
Economic refers to costs and finances at a variety of scales, from individuals up to government
Social refers to people’s health, their lifestyle, community, etc.
Environmental the impact on our surroundings, including the land, water and air as well as features of the built-up areas
Water stress this happens when there is not enough water available. This may be because of an inadequate supply at a particular time or it may relate to water quality
Areas of water deficit areas where the rain that falls does not provide enough water and there may be shortages
Areas of water surplus areas that have more water than is needed – often such areas receive a high rainfall total, but have a relatively small population.
Sustainable making sure there is enough water in the long term without harming the environment