Climate and Change

Anna Hollywood
Flashcards by Anna Hollywood, updated more than 1 year ago
Anna Hollywood
Created by Anna Hollywood about 7 years ago
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GCSE Geography (Climate & Change) Flashcards on Climate and Change, created by Anna Hollywood on 03/25/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Define climate The average weather for a particular place over a certain period of time (a year)
Explain briefly the past cycles of climate warm and cold episodes, every 75,000 years, peaking then starting the cycle again
What coincides (in terms of peaks and troughs) with carbon dioxide? temperature
How has the temperature changed over the last few thousands of years? average temp now = 5 degrees, used to be 0 degrees, over the last 450,000 years the temp range is becoming more extreme
How many ice ages have occurred since 450BC? How have they changed? 3, they have become colder
4 reasons why Vikings left Greenland Increasingly colder...food and livestock was becoming more scarce...ate all the livestock (including new-born)...rest of population died of freezing cold
What is an extreme climate? Extremely hot/cold. Temp and rainfall conditions in these places limit flora and fauna
Why do extreme climates have a low carrying capacity? Growing seasons are short...crop conditions are unsuitable for good growth
8 problems that may be experienced in extreme climates Lack of communication/facilities/materials/food...bad living conditions...poor transport networks...small pop...difficult to get clean water
5 human threats faced by extreme climates Pollution...tourism...civil war...habitat loss (pollution, deforestation)...climate change (pollution)
5 physical threats faced by extreme climates Permafrost melting...desertification...climate change...drought...habitat loss (ice melting, natural disaster)
Proportions of greenhouse gases: Water vapour (36-72%), CO2 (9-26%), methane (4-9%), nitrous oxide, ozone (3-7%0, CFCs
Recent evidence to show global warming -Lower number of oxygen (18) isotopes found in newer ice - water climate
Future (best) prediction for global warming Storms & hurricanes, species becoming extinct, global temps shouldn't exceed 2 degrees, high latitudes warming up could encourage tree growth & greater biodiversity
Future (worst) prediction for global warming As ice melts, less white surface to reflect heat, world heats quicker...a 6 degree rise...billions will lose their homes
Future (best) prediction for sea level rising World sea level rise of nearly 1 metre
Future (worst) prediction for sea level rising If all of Antarctica melts, world sea levels could rise by 65-70m...earth could be ice free...billions will lose homes
Local threats to extreme climate environments Drought...famine...tourism...migration...land use changes...pop growth...political problems...flooding
Global threats to extreme climate environments Global warming...sea level rising...pollution...use of fossil fuels...ice breakage/melt
5 local solutions to reduce these threats Solar panels in American deserts, Australia & Middle East...renewable energy (geothermal energy) in polar regions...wind turbines...hydro-electric dam...recycling schemes
3 global solutions to reduce these threats Antarctic treaty (stops development) 1961...International year of the desert and desertification 2006-raising awareness about resource consumption...Kyoto Protocol, countries agree to cut co2 emissions by 20% by 2015
Which countries have and haven't achieved the Kyoto Protocol? Have-Sweden/Finland...Haven't-China/U.S
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