issues and debates

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issues and debates
Tabitha Scales
Flashcards by Tabitha Scales, updated more than 1 year ago
Tabitha Scales
Created by Tabitha Scales almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Androcentrism Male bias - men's behaviour is the standard against which womens behaviour is compared.
Estrocentrism Female behaviour is seen as the norm
Tavris 1993 Most cultures take male behaviour as standard therfore women make the decision to behave like men or be different.
Alpha bias the attempt to exaggerate the differences between the genders.
Beta bias the attempt to downplay the differences between the genders.
Lee and Harley 2012 Women have a slightly different reaction and are more likely to 'tend and befriend' in stressful situations
Reductionism an explanation is reductionist when a single explanation or cause is suggested. Explaining behaviour by cutting theories down to some basic principles.
Holism The argument that behaviour should be viewed as a whole. Behaviour as a product of different influences which all interact.
Social sensitivity Any psychological research that has wider ethical implications.
Brehm 1992 Some topics could not be studied due to their potentially sensitive nature and if they have the potential to cause issues with their participants.
Nativism Nature side of the debate
Empiricism Nurture side of the debate
QTL method, Plomin 1994 The search for mutiple genes to influence behaviour
Heritability equation V = G + E + (G X E)
Gottesman 1963 Suggested we all have a reaction range, with genetic potential for characteristics. The environment determines how much this potential is fulfilled.
Free will People are able to choose how we behave, our actions are voluntary with no restraints.
Soft determinism Behaviour is determined but we also have the opportunity to excerise free will.
Hard determinism Human behaviour is determined by external forces and actions are out of our control.
Ethnocentrism The assumption one ethnic group is superior to another or all others and the behaviour of that group is the 'norm'.
The macrosystem The culture a child grows up in, researchers have their own macrosystem which can bias how they see the world, this can affect their objectivity as a researcher.
Cultural relativism The belief that it is essential to consider the cultural context when examining behaviour in that culture.
Smith & Bond 1988 Argued perfect cross-cultural replications are impossible because procedure will have different meanings to people in different cultures, lacking validity.
Idiographic Emphasis is on the self and argues generalising is difficult because of their uniqueness.
Nomothetic Explanations are generalisable to groups establishes general laws about behaviour.
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