Life in the Third Reich (Nazi Germany)

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What was it like to live in the Third Reich? a. Religious groups- catholics, the protestants, religious sects, e.g. the Jehovah Witnesses b. Young people c. Women d. Workers e. Jewish people
a. Religious Groups in Nazi Germany COVER CARD
Define religious denominations Different religious groups
A. What were Nazi Policies towards Religious Groups? COVER CARD
What did the Nazi Party programme state that they believed in? "Positive Christianity" and it said that there would be "freedom for all religious denominations"
However what were the Nazis doing within months of seizing power? They were doing there best to damage the Christian Faith
B. Why did the Nazis follow this policy COVER CARD
Why did Hitler and the Nazis not like organised religious groups? They inspired the faith and Commitment of German people
What did the Nazis want instead? All German people only to be faithful and committed to Hitler and the Nazis
What did this mean in other words? The Nazis wanted Hitler to be the "god" of the German people and they wanted Nazism to be the German "religion"
Therefore what did the Nazis follow a policy of? Attacking and weakening religious groups within Germany
C. How much did life change for different religious groups? 1. The Catholic Church 2. The Protestant Church 3. Religious Sects. 4. Pagan Cults.
1. The Catholic Church TITLE CARD
What did Hitler sign with the Pope? A Concordat (or agreement) with the Pope, promising not to interfere with the Catholic church. Hitler had no intention of keeping his word
What happened to church schools, catholic groups and priests? Church schools were shut down, catholic groups broken up and priests were even arrested and put into concentration camps
2. The Protestant Church TITLE CARD
What sort of church did the Nazis set up? A "Reich Church" which all Protestants had to belong .
Why did many Protestants hate this church? The Nazis elected a Nazi leader as their "Reich Bishop" and expelled all "Non-Aryan" pastors (vicars)
How was the "Confessional Church" set up? A group of pastors led by Martin Niemoller broke away from the Reich Church and set up their own "Confessional Church"
How many pastors joined the "Confessional Church"? 6000 pastors, leaving only 2,000 in the Reich Church
What did the Nazis do in response? They arrested over 800 pastors and put many, including Niemoller, into concentration camps
3. Religious Sects. Some religious sects refused to co-operate with the Nazis
What happened when Jehovah Witnesses refused to serve in the army? Many Jehovah Witness families were put into concentration camps
4. Pagan Cults Many non-christian sects grew up to replace those that had been banned. All were pro-Nazi, racist and worshipped the sun or seasons instead of God
How well did the Nazis deal with the religious groups? It would appear fair to argue that the Nazis had a great deal of success in carrying out their polices against religious groups
b. The Young People in Nazi Germany TITLE CARD
A.What were the Nazi Policies towards Young People? The Nazis wanted to indoctrinate the young in order to gain the loyal support of all young people
How did the Nazis do this? i. The Nazis controlled education ii. Nazi movement Youth was created
i. Education TITLE CARD
What was the education system under the Nazis designed to do? To ensure that young people understood and accepted Nazi values
What did the Nazis do in order to achieve their aim? They laid down strict guidelines on the school cirriculum
How was the school syllabus changed? Much more emphasis was put on PE, biology, German and History
Why was more emphasis put on these subjects These subjects could be easily twisted into giving students a biased (positioned) picture that was favourable to the Nazis and Hitler's ideas.
What happened to textbooks? They were re-written to paint a good picture of the Nazis
How did the Children's education change in general? German children were not so much educated as indoctrinated
What does indoctrination mean? Getting people to believe a set of ideas
What did children learn about it History? Germany's "glorious past" and how wrong and unfair the Treaty of Versailles was
What were the Jews blamed for? Accepting this treaty and for the weak governments and unemployment that followed after the war
What did Hitler's hatred for the Jews mean? They were consistently presented in a negative way to the pupils
Why was physical education essential for boys and girls? The Nazis wanted fit young women as they would become future mothers of the German nation and boys would need to be able to withstand physical hardship if they were to join the army and help extend the Germany Reich
Why was biology important? It was used to teach Nazi ideas about race
What did lessons teach pupils to develop? A strong sense of Nationalism and take real pride in "the German Fatherland"
ii. The Nazi Youth Movement Leisure time was also controlled. Nazi Youth movements were set up and pressure was put on Young people to belong to them
When was it made compulsory to belong to the movement? 1939
What were boys taught? a mixture of sport, Nazi ideas and war games as Hitler saw them becoming part of a new, highly trained army
What were girls taught? Domestic science and physical education to prepare them for their role in producing the next generation of the "superior German race"
Why did Young People join the Nazi Youth Movement? 1. some were attracted by the exciting new and interesting activities 2. Some were attracted by the military aspects of it 3. Some were attracted by the chance to belong to something that seemed powerful and relevant
B. Why did the Nazis follow this policy? TITLE CARD
Why did the Nazis want to control Young People? 1. Nazis realised that the young people were Germany's future- they had to influence the minds of the young people 2. They wanted to control them to make them fit and tough- wanting to continue to make a strong nation 3. Parents would become loyal to the Nazis
C. How did life change for young people? The above polices were certainly successful in attracting some young women to the Nazis
What percentage of boys and girls were members in 1933? 50% of all boys and 15% of all girls
When was the Nazi Youth Movement made compulsory? 1939
But what was happening by this time? The movement was going through a crisis and becoming less popular
Why was the Nazi Youth Movement becoming less popular? 1. leadership 2. Activities
Why did leadership start to become a problem? 1. Experienced leaders of the Youth Movement had been drafted in to fight in the German Army 2. Many movements were now run by older teenagers who rigidly enforced Nazi rules
What did these older teenagers do? They forbade other teenagers to meet informally with their friends. These new leaders became unpopular as they were too inflexible
Why did the Activities become a problem? As the Second World War progressed the activities of the Youth Movement became more and more focused on the war effort. Members spent most of their time on military drill which became unpopular
What opposition did some young people pose to the Nazis? Clearly the Nazi Youth Movement had failed to attract the support of all young people. Youth groups that resented Nazi control in their lives were established: 1.The Swing Movement 2. The Edelweiss Pirates
1. The Swing Movement TITLE CARD
What class was this movement mainly made up of? The middle class
What did they do in this movement? They listened to English and American music and sang English songs. They danced American dances like the 'jitterbug' to banned jazz music.
Who did they accept in their clubs? JEWS
What did they talk about and enjoy? SEX
What did the Nazis do in response? The Nazis issued a handbook helping the authorities to identify these degenerate types.
2. The Edelweiss Pirates TITLE CARD
What type of teenagers were in this group? Working class teenagers
Were they an organised movement? They were not, and groups in various cities took different names
What names of the movement were used in various cities? 'The Roving Dudes'- Essen The 'Kittelbach Pirates'- Dusseldorf The 'Navajos'- Cologne
What age were the Pirates aged between? 14-17 (Germans could leave school at 14 but they did not have to sign on for military service until they were 17)
What did the Pirates do at weekend? They went camping and sang songs just like the Hitler Youth but they changed the lyrics of the songs to mock Germany
In contrast with the Hitler Youth what did the Pirates include? Boys and Girls
How did the Nazis deal with the opposition? The activities of the Edelweiss Pirates did cause some serious concerns to the Nazi Party during the war
Why were the Nazis not very successful in dealing with these young people? Their policy towards them was not consistent
How did Himmler suggest the young people should be handled? They should be rounded up and put in concentration camps
Why was this not done? Because as long as the Nazis needed future workers for the industry and soldiers they could not simply exterminate young people
What did this mean? The Nazis could never effectively deal with these young opponents, for example sometimes the pirates were arrested and sometimes their activities were ignored
Women in Nazi Germany TITLE CARD
What were the Nazi Policies towards women? The Nazis wanted: 1. To encourage women to have large families 2. Women to help them to create the German master race 3. To encourage women to leave the workplace and stay at home
1. The Nazis policies that attempted to raise the birth rate in Germany TITLE CARD
When and what was the 'Law for the Encouragement of Marriage'? 1933- This said that all newly married couples would be given a loan of 1000 marks. When their first child was born they could keep a quarter of the money
How much money could they keep on their second child? The second quarter of the money (1/2)
How much money could they keep on their fourth child? The whole amount
What were given to the most fertile women each year? Medals (Bronze, silver and Gold)
2. The Nazis wanted women to help them to create the German Master Race TITLE CARD
What did the Nazis want to improve? The German race, making it racially pure
What did this mean the Nazis had to do? Prevent people from having children, while encourage others to have more
Why was compulsory sterilisation introduced? For those who had hereditary disease, mental illness or antisocial behaviour such as alcoholism
When were Jewish women banned from marrying Aryan men? 1935
3. The Nazis wanted to encourage women to leave the workplace and to stay at home The Nazis believed a women's workplace was in the home, so they encourage women to give up work
Who were loans given to? Young mothers who left their jobs to get married
Between what years were thousands of married women doctors, lawyers, teachers and civil servants sacked? 1933-1936
What were employers encourage to do? To discriminate against women, and give job vacancies to men
B. Why did the Nazis follow these policies TITLE CARD
What did Hitler want to do? Increase Germany's power and build an empire.
What did Hitler need for this reason? A large powerful army
What did this require? A lot of manpower
What was unfortunate for Hitler? The German population was not growing very fast
So what did the Nazis do in reverse? They reversed this trend by encouraging women to have more babies
Why had the Nazis been elected? They promised to provide more jobs. Every job left by a women returning to home was therefore available to a man
C. How much did life change for women? The above polices did have some success
What success did the Nazis have? While the Nazis were in power the percentage of women in the workforce dropped from 37% in 1933 to 33% in 1937
HOWEVER why were women to useful to remove them completely from the workforce? 1. Women were paid lower wages then men- they were cheaper for employers 2. As the Nazis prepared for war there was not enough men to do all the work
Why did Germany face the Crisis years of 1942-1945? The German industry was struggling to cope with the demand for war supplies
What were the Nazis torn between during these years? Their traditional stereotype of the mother, and the actual needs of the workplace
d. Workers (men) in Nazi Germany TITLE CARD
A. What were the Nazi policies towards workers? 1. Hitler and the Nazis aimed to decrease unemployment 2. Hitler and the Nazis wanted to closely control the lives of the workers
1.How did Hitler achieve his fist policy? (the aim to decrease unemployment) i. The RAD ii. New Industries iii. Rearmament iv. Transferring work
i. The RAD Hitler's first action was to set up a National Labour Service (Reichsarbeitsdienst or RAD)
What did this organisation give men? Jobs in public work schemes
What sorts of jobs were they given? Digging drainage systems on farms, planting new forests, building schools and hospitals
What was the biggest public work scheme? The building of a network of motorways (autobahns)
ii. New Industries The unemployment also found work in new industries
What sort of Germany did Hitler want? A strong, independent Germany which meant he had to make the country self sufficient in food and materials
As a result what did Hitler order Germany's scientist to find? Artificial substitutes for food and materials that were imported from other countries
What alternatives did the scientists develop? 1. Wool and cotton were made from pulped wood 2. Coffee was made from acorns 3. Petrol was made from coal 4. Makeup was made from flour
What did these things being in Germany mean? New industries had been created. As well as jobs for the unemployed
iii. Rearmament The most important reason for the fall in unemployment was reasrmament
What did Hitler start in March 1935? Compulsory military service for young men and he set up the air force
By how much did the army grow? 1933- 100 000 men 1939- 1 400 000 men
What did the men doing military service not count as? unemployed
How much was spent on weapons and equipment in order to equip this new large army? 46 billion marks
iv. Transferring work Many Jews and women were forced out of their jobs soon after Hitler came to power. Their jobs were given to German men
What made it appear that unemployment had decreased? The names of the Jews and the women were not added to the unemployment register
How did Hitler achieve his second policy for men in Nazi Germany? (wanting to closely control the lives of the workers) i. The German Labour Front ii. Strength Through Joy (KDF)
i. The German Labour Front Within months of coming to power, Hitler abolished all trade unions
What did Hitler establish in replace of the Trade unions? The German Labour Front, led by a Nazi- Dr Robert Ley
ii. Strength Through Joy (KDF) TITLE CARD
What did this organisation aim to do? To make the workers loyal to the Nazis and hardworking
What would the Nazis promise? Incentives such as cheap holidays and day trips for those who worked hard
B. Why did the Nazis follow these policies? TITLE CARD
Why was it important for the Nazis to decrease unemployment? During the election campaigns Hitler has promised the voters "work and bread" if he became leader
What did Hitler decide he needed to do in order to make Germany into strong Nation? He needed to maximise his workforce and its output
Why did Hitler want to closely control worker' lives? So that he could make Germany more efficient, for example he wanted to prevent the workers from slowing up production by going on strike
C. How much did life change for workers? i. Decreases in unemployment ii. Workers' Organisations
i. Decrease in unemployment TITLE CARD
By how much did the Nazis decrease unemployment 1933- 6 014 000 men 1939- 302 000 men
What does this basis suggest? As unemployment decreased so greatly, the lives of the workers must have improved
However what becomes clear from evidence? The lives of the workers did not greatly improve
Why did the lives of many workers not improve? 1. Many of the jobs, Hitler provided, were taken by women or Jews 2. Many people found themselves forced into dull, unpleasant jobs 3. Many workers were expected to work long hours for low wages
What did Hitler force when he came to power? He forced the unemployed, unskilled workers to join government programmes
What would happen if they did not accept the work on these programmes? They would get no unemployment benefits
What happened to the average industrial workers' wages between 1929 and 1938? Their wages remained the same but their average working hours increased from 43 hours in 1933 to 47 hours in 1939
How were the workers in the RAD paid? They were not even paid a proper wage, they got pocket money, meals and accommodation in the workers' camps
ii. Workers' Organisations TITLE CARD
Why might it at first sight appear that the two workers' organisations which were established had the effect of improving the lives of the workers? 1. The German Labour Front took actions to ensure that bosses could not sack workers on the spot 2. The organisations strength through Joy (KDF) promised that the workers incentives such as cheap holidays and day trips for those who worked hard
However what did the German Labour Front do? 1. Prevented workers from leaving a job without the Governments permission 2. Abolished the right of workers to bargain for higher wages 3. Made strikes illegal 4. Got rid of limitations on the number of hours a person could be made to work
Who were the holidays and day trips organised by Strength through Joy actually reserved for? The Nazi Party personnel
What did this mean? That many workers could not benefit, and they did not receive these incentives which may have made up for the fact that many workers were working long hours for low pay
e. The Jews in Nazi Germany TITLE CARD
What does 'Boycott' mean? The deliberate decision not to go somewhere or not to do something
A.What were Nazis policies towards Jewish people? i. Measures introduced against the Jews in 1935 ii. More extreme measures against Jews in 1935 iii. Lull in anti-Jewish policy,1936 iv. Return to extreme measures,1938 v. The promotion of Jewish immigration in 1939 vi. The Holocaust during the Second World War 1939-1945
i. Measures introduced against the Jews in 1933 As soon as the Nazis achieved power anti-jewish policies started
How many Jews were murdered during 1933? 36 Jews
Where else were thousands of Jews sent? Concentration camps such as Dachau
Where did place cards appear and what did they say on them? Outside shops and cafes and besides roads leading to towns and villages, reading 'Jews not wanted'
As a result of these policies where did the Jews go? Many Jews left Germany
How many Jews had fled from Germany by 1933? 35,000 Jews
Where did the Jews go when they fled from Germany? Palestine, USA and Britain
Why did Jews often find it hard to escape Germany? Countries such as Britain also discriminated against Jews and were reluctant to allow them in the country
ii. More extreme measures against the Jews in 1935 TITLE CARD
What were Jews forbidden to do in May 1935? Join the army
What Laws were passed in September 1935? The Nuremberg Laws and the Reich Citizen Law
What were The Nuremberg Laws? Laws for the protection of German Blood and Honour
What did these laws do? 1. Banned marriages between Jews and Aryans 2. They were very harsh and took away many civil rights from the Jews 3. Forbade Jews and Aryans to have sexual relations outside marriage
What was the Reich Citizen Law? Made Jews 'subjects' rather than citizens e.g. they lost certain rights
iii. Lull in anti-Jewish policy, 1936 TITLE CARD
What happened in 1936? There was a lull in the anti-jewish campaign as the Olympic Games were taking place in Berlin. Anti- Jewish signs were taken down
Why did the lull take place? Many foreigners visited Germany during the Olympic Games, and the Nazis did not want to "advertise" their racist policies to these people in case it led to other countries becoming suspicious and wary of the Nazis
iv. Return to extreme measures, 1938 TITLE CARD
What did the Jews have to do in April 1938? They had to register their property, making it easier to confiscate
What were Jewish doctors, dentists and lawyers forbidden to do June-July 1938? Treat Aryans
What did Jews have on their passports October 1938? They had a red letter 'J' stamped on their passports
What happened 9th-10th November 1938? Kristallnacht- Nazis destroyed synagogues, Jewish homes and shops
What was Kristallnacht a very clear example of? The extreme nature of the Nazi policies against the Jews
Why did Kristallnacht start? At the beginning of November 1939, a German Diplomat who was working at the German Embassy in Paris, Ernst von Rath, was shot and killed by a young Jewish man
What did the Nazis use this an excuse for? To start anti-Jewish riots across Germany
How many synagogues were destroyed on the night of the 9th and 10th November 1938? 400 Synagogues
How many Jews were killed? 91 Jews
How many shops were destroyed? 7,500 shops were destroyed
How many people were sent to concentration camps? 30,000 were sent to concentration camps
What did the Nazis claim about the riots? They were the work of ordinary people who were outraged by the events in Paris. It seemed more likely that it was SS and SA members involved in the attacks
v. The promotion of Jewish emigration in 1939 1939 marks a turning point in the Nazi Policy towards the Jews
Why was 1939 marked a turning point in Nazi policies towards the Jews? The Nazis no longer focused on attacking the Jews and making their lives extremely difficult, the Nazis now began a policy of trying to get rid of the Jews entirely from Germany
What was established in result of this in January 1939? The Reich office for Jewish Emigration was established to promote emigration of the Jews "by every possible means"
v. The Holocaust during the Second World War 1939-1945 Once the war had started the mass extermination of Jews began
How much did people know about the Holocaust in Germany? The extent to which people in Germany either knew about the Holocaust is supported it is still a matter of great historical debate and controversy
What did the people see after the Second World War based on the Holocaust? People saw what had happened in the Holocaust and many people began to be against racism and what it seems to lead to
B. Why did the Nazis follow these policies towards the Jews? i. Anti-Semitism ii. Hitler's belief in the German Master Race iii. The Nazis belief that the Jews were "impure"
i. Anti- Semitism The Nazis' policies against the Jews were extreme, but anti-semitism was not something that the Nazis invented
What had Christian Europe regarded Jews as for hundreds of years? "Christ Killers"
Where was this deep prejudice against the Jews strong during the twentieth century? Germany, Poland and the Ukraine (in Eastern Europe), where the Jewish population was very large
FACT CARD Therefore anti-semitism was popular idea amongst some people in Germany even before the Nazis came to power but the Nazis were far more extreme in their final policies against Jews than any other group in history
ii. Hitler's belief in the German Master Race Hitler believed that the German people were the master race or what the Nazis called the ARYAN race
However why was there a problem with this idea? Germany had lost the First World War which made it difficult for the Nazis and Hitler to argue that Germany were the Master race
How did Hitler argue his point? He argued that Germany had been weakened by its 'impure' elements
What did the Nazis think the solution to Germany's problem was? To make the German race pure again and to get rid of all the impure elements
Who were partly held the blame by the Nazis for the state of Germany? The Communists and Socialists
iii. The Nazis belief that the Jews were "Impure" The Nazis believed that the Jews caused various problems in Germany and blamed the Jews fro various things which happened in Germany
What did the Germans believe about the Jews? 1. They argued that the Jews were not Aryan and this made the German race impure 2. Jewish shops charged too high and that the shop owners only employed other jews - not proper Germans 3. Jews were untrustworthy and often planned to corrupt Germany
Why were the Nazis successful in carrying out their policies against the Jews? 1. Jews were blamed for anything that was wrong with Germany and some people often accepted this as true. 2. Some people who were not actually anti-Jewish supported other policies of the Nazis 3. Very few people would be prepared to defend this weak group in society- they were fearful of what would happen to them if they opposed the Nazis
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