Unit 5 - Upper Extremity

Kayla Teutschmann
Flashcards by Kayla Teutschmann, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Kayla Teutschmann
Created by Kayla Teutschmann almost 3 years ago
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ARRT Image Evaluation Flashcards on Unit 5 - Upper Extremity, created by Kayla Teutschmann on 02/27/2017.

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Question Answer
Upper extremity usually uses _____ -scale contrast. SHORT SCALE CONTRAST high contrast low kVp
What will happen when the part is not parallel to the IR? 266df593-830b-4fa8-b2c6-1ac8af3c1a96.jpg (image/jpg) SHAPE DISTORTION foreshortening elongation joint spaces closed
Oblique Digit 81ee76d4-d0b0-49a4-ab50-a61f08a9a079.jpg (image/jpg) finger not parallel to IR *should be more concave to one side*
Oblique Digit 2a61c55b-434e-4431-b625-18d0da706635.jpg (image/jpg) finger not obliqued to 45 degrees - can't see the concavity of one side of the digit joint spaces closed
Lateral Digit 0b606767-087b-4f5b-ba7f-20b0a6b35043.jpg (image/jpg) finger bent back - not truly lateral
Lateral Digit 632b41d0-a49d-4a41-8fe7-efb6ae64bb99.jpg (image/jpg) artifact
AP Thumb aeca86cd-19f6-446e-922c-893f05007fb6.jpg (image/jpg) metacarpals overlapping thumb
Oblique Thumb feefe0e1-549b-49e1-9123-7345d54342b5.jpg (image/jpg) slightly overrotated foreshortened distal phalanx
Lateral Thumbs a0aa1bac-ce9e-41ad-9575-2b1ee99400d7.jpg (image/jpg) should be concave to one side only and straight on the other images are not truly lateral
PA Hand 9183aafd-d2a3-4c2e-b20c-72b7913d8e81.jpg (image/jpg) distal phalynxes are bent flatten hand to true PA *should be equal concavity on all digits*
PA Hand e41c8e59-849a-436b-8440-8e9609834134.jpg (image/jpg) obliqued - fingers are not equally concave on both sides distal metacarpals are overlapped
Oblique Hand 116ddbcd-2fab-4d6b-8797-290c23878fc4.jpg (image/jpg) Overly obliqued - metacarpals superimposed joint spaces closed - fingers bent
Oblique Hand 414a54bf-8c89-4875-885a-83f322591ba1.jpg (image/jpg) MCP joints superimposed - fingers too close together *underexposed
Oblique Hand e43361d2-1c54-4053-a41a-534ce953d2b0.jpg (image/jpg) joint spaces closed hand overly obliqued MCP joints superimposed
Fan Lateral Hand b60d7a24-3499-4559-b2a7-c30152ba2365.jpg (image/jpg) phalanges are superimposed and not well visualized patient's hand is externally rotated
Fan Lateral 054958a9-2fe9-41e6-bd50-64efc49b5855.jpg (image/jpg) patient's 2nd digit is bent - closed joint space hand is internally rotated
Fan Lateral 16812882-2729-4c7f-9f1f-25f3b7c7afb7.jpg (image/jpg) patient's metacarpals are not superimposed - hand is externally rotated distal phalanx's are bent - joint spaces closed not truly lateral
PA Wrist cc921044-41f1-4092-9b29-950907d230a1.jpg (image/jpg) wrist externally rotated - joint spaces closed, proximal metacarpals superimposed, carpals superimposed radiocarpal joint is closed
Oblique Wrist 1be9f306-367a-4f82-a8a3-4af492b97dea.jpg (image/jpg) over rotation radial styloid is not seen in profile
Lateral Wrist e2aaf901-e438-4c95-bb11-eb776b0dddd5.jpg (image/jpg) under rotation - radius and ulna are not superimposed, hand is internally rotated
AP Forearm f740fbda-4669-4aba-99d1-fa97d3ac7913.jpg (image/jpg) not AP - wrist is internally rotated, proximal radius and ulna are superimposed
Lateral Forearm 41a58b3a-1a14-4e4d-aa48-4cf6b38190f1.jpg (image/jpg) Elbow is not 90 degrees proximal radius and ulna are superimposed
AP Elbow 97336b67-1e42-409b-bf22-7c5112825373.jpg (image/jpg) humerus is externally rotated because the epicondyles are not in profile
AP Oblique Elbow Internal Rotation 6b94acdf-aef8-42a5-930f-839747a2d599.jpg (image/jpg) Insufficient obliquity
AP Oblique Elbow Internal Rotation 97a78a1f-8208-4df4-ab61-ea5259f4a1f9.jpg (image/jpg) Excessive obliquity
AP Oblique Elbow External Rotation 2e3d403b-ce94-47ce-9f86-0111368cb59d.jpg (image/jpg) forearm is not parallel to IR capitulum-radial joint is closed olecranon is not in the fossa
AP Oblique Elbow External Rotation c85132cb-80ef-42c2-be34-06a7163c748f.jpg (image/jpg) Underrotation distal forearm slightly elevated
AP Oblique Elbow External Rotation c8ceb643-c42b-4a14-9692-843f64b5cf37.jpg (image/jpg) Overrotation
Lateral Elbow 28282175-035b-42e7-9682-eab21e169440.jpg (image/jpg) The elbow is elevated above the level of the shoulder radial head anterior to coronoid - should be superimposed capitulum too proximal to trochlea radial tuberosity seen - hand is pronated
Lateral Elbow 42117b24-ec24-4f2a-b887-a3e92eb9121d.jpg (image/jpg) Elbow is depressed below the level of the shoulder radial head superimposed by coronoid capitulum too distal to medial trochlea
Lateral Elbow 71b8bb2b-0607-4ec3-8f44-e844bf5ad43b.jpg (image/jpg) the distal wrist is elevated hand is pronated because you can see the radial tuberosity - should not see that
AP Humerus f91655a8-6560-4d7f-9dc1-e2dba429d3d4.jpg (image/jpg) humeral epicodyles not in profile radial head, neck and tuberosity to not superimpose ulna arm is externally rotated (greater tubercle in profile)
Lateral Humerus 86b79935-f9f8-4923-80e6-b646c7f7f1b0.jpg (image/jpg) over rotation places the humeral head within the field of the chest
Lateral Humerus 1152b9b1-5368-426f-b327-56ac24afcdf6.jpg (image/jpg) epicondyles are not perpendicular humerus is internally rotated (lesser tubercle is in profile medially) overrotation
AP Shoulder internal rotation 77934b2a-ec60-462b-b421-a71432f00759.jpg (image/jpg) the MCP is tilted posteriorly as marked by the superior scapular angle is inferior to the clavicle
AP Shoulder 4c7ac498-c546-44b8-a911-82d8b92cc3b3.jpg (image/jpg) patient is rotated towards the unaffected shoulder: decreased thoracic superimposition over the scapular body
AP Shoulder bdaa92c3-ea1b-432a-80fd-e14607e2ed03.jpg (image/jpg) patient is rotated towards affected side:increased thoracic superimposition over the scapular body
Inferosuperior Axiolateral Shoulder 483db6bf-d909-418b-be26-7a0810f7d272.jpg (image/jpg) humerus is foreshortened - humeral head is distorted arm is not abducted 90 degrees from body
Grashey 3d284c7c-5ee8-421f-b952-7b62ed4d469e.jpg (image/jpg) Insufficient obliquity
Grashey 3fbf92c3-4d99-4cfb-9f95-a938711bbd7b.jpg (image/jpg) Excessive obliquity
Grashey ebc6f72c-8aa2-4708-a000-b9fc60410e23.jpg (image/jpg) MCP is tilted posteriorly
PA Oblique Scapular Y-Lateral 507b3b50-3f8a-4cd1-a381-dcff854e070c.jpg (image/jpg) Excessive Obliquity
PA Oblique Scapular Y-Lateral 1f3e6639-6c3f-48c7-a8bc-441101298333.jpg (image/jpg) Insufficient Obliquity
PA Oblique Scapular Y-Lateral 8755dd94-fe9e-4ecc-a1e9-65ea10b0ddc2.jpg (image/jpg) MCP is tilted anteriorly
PA Oblique Scapular Y-Lateral 52abd8e9-56a5-4b7a-8399-63db47430640.jpg (image/jpg) MCP is tilted posteriorly
AP Clavicle 1c55e796-abcd-4e3a-b10b-e90c4906782c.jpg (image/jpg) MCP is tilted anteriorly
AP Clavicle e732098c-45cb-48d6-9637-7dce52c9e208.jpg (image/jpg) MCP is tilted posteriorly
AP Clavicle 69d79079-70e3-4e8e-9c91-d21810cf7e15.jpg (image/jpg) Patient is rotated towards affected shoulder
AP Clavicle 9b47118f-2cb8-4619-be9f-0dbfd0f5acf7.jpg (image/jpg) Patient is rotated towards unaffected shoulder
AP AC Joints Unilateral bfd415be-a510-459e-acec-e2a7fee58c30.jpg (image/jpg) MCP tilted anteriorly
AP Scapula 4f317a26-52bc-49ad-8572-5dedfce93033.jpg (image/jpg) arm is not abducted so scapula is hidden behind the thorax
Lateral Scapula d68b0591-bf51-4169-9c64-8da332238ef3.jpg (image/jpg) Insufficient obliquity
Lateral Scapula 49f78dd9-d771-4542-89cb-b127ea8cc7c1.jpg (image/jpg) Excessive Obliquity
Oblique Sternum aba47e5a-4840-4e34-b9aa-38662339befd.jpg (image/jpg) projection taken as LAO instead of RAO sternum is projected within the heart and scapula
RAO Sternum 35cbd9f6-c639-4421-ae08-590d23a601d1.jpg (image/jpg) inadequate breathing technique
Lateral Sternum 3e71500c-58b7-4ccf-9dd1-3ec853997238.jpg (image/jpg) patient's left thorax is rotated anteriorly
Lateral Sternum 08e313e7-413e-415d-a34a-f6d4950570fe.jpg (image/jpg) patient's right thorax is rotated anteriorly
PA Ribs Above Diaphragm Unilateral 1098fafb-ffa8-49cd-afe1-fb384eac85be.jpg (image/jpg) patient rotated towards the right
PA Ribs Below Diaphragm Unilateral 02a7ccf0-2585-46dc-8dc6-9575972012fb.jpg (image/jpg) Excessive obliquity
AP - LPO Ribs Above Diaphragm Unilateral def5ef39-e28d-41d8-8ce5-080128c74b3c.jpg (image/jpg) Insufficient obliquity
1eca6230-c3a0-4251-993f-3674b85502a1.jpg (image/jpg) Left thorax is more anterior
b26924a2-7067-4e7c-ba1d-518f16b27a24.jpg (image/jpg) Right thorax is more anterior
What's the evaluation criteria for the PA Finger X-Ray? 4e3e0121-13a6-49d2-b3ae-62895dc70b71.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: distal phalynx -> distal 1/2 of metacarpal demonstrated CRITERIA: - equal concavity on both sides of phalanges - IP and MCP open - no overlapping of adjacent fingers POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ PIP joint
What's the evaluation criteria for the Lateral finger x-ray? 9f31d0db-fd8b-4b1d-bcdb-eda906d1e854.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire digit demonstrated CRITERIA: open joint spaces concave to one side, while the dorsal side is straight no overlapping of adjacent fingers/soft tissues POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ PIP joint
Oblique finger x-ray image criteria? 5626d0ac-0746-40fe-8d69-804f668996ca.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire digit demonstrated CRITERIA: more concavity to one side open joint spaces no superimposition of adjacent fingers POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ PIP joint
AP Thumb Criteria d87052dc-852e-4b04-b305-70341387de62.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire digit including trapezium CRITERIA: equal concavity on both sides of digit open joint spaces no superimposition from adjacent bones POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ 1st MCP joint
Oblique Thumb bad119c4-c11e-4e18-9f8c-c5c63c543db8.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire digit including trapezium CRITERIA: more concave to the side farthest from IR open joint spaces no superimposition from adjacent bones POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ 1st MCP joint
Lateral Thumb 20acfebc-a79e-49a6-900f-d6a7bb13f04b.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire digit including trapezium CRITERIA: most concave to one side, while the other is straight open joint spaces no superimposition from adjacent bones POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ 1st MCP joint
PA Hand 485ca939-75f4-4b95-8b89-f901a3000e26.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire hand including 1'' of distal radius and ulna CRITERIA: equal concavity on either side of digits digits separated with no superimposition open joint spaces POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ 3rd MCP joint
Oblique Hand b3f78c4e-75ca-4cdb-ba41-ea2f6ea807a4.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire hand including 1'' of distal radius and ulna CRITERIA: digits more concave to one side minimal overlap of 3rd-5th metacarpal shafts separation of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpals POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ 3rd MCP joint
Lateral Hand af5b572a-a443-4fb1-8386-b5fc5b903b38.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire hand including distal 1'' of radius and ulna superimposed CRITERIA: metacarpals and distal radius/ulna are superimposed thumb is free of superimposition *thumb in lateral position* open joint spaces POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ 3rd MCP joint LAT Extension: foreign body localization LAT Flexion: phalanges
PA Wrist 0d18b7ff-2027-4ffc-a06b-f2b95277a978.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: all carpals including midmetacarpals and distal radius/ulna CRITERIA: true PA is marked by symmetry of proximal metacarpals carpals should be free of superimposition of the metacarpals and radius/ulna POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midcarpals
Oblique Wrist 7ada70d9-b572-4ff0-910f-774512203bcf.png (image/png) ANATOMY: carpals on lateral side of wrist, scaphoid CRITERIA: scaphoid well demonstrated 45 degree obliquity POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midcarpals
L e2439046-e679-4936-bccd-991970c2d087.jpg (image/jpg) CRITERIA: radius/ulna should be superimposed thumb should be forward metacarpals superimposed POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midcarpals
AP Forearm 9c993a8f-4053-40d5-a65e-57689e9811ae.png (image/png) ANATOMY: entire forearm: wrist joint -> elbow joint CRITERIA: slight superimposition of proximal radius/ulna POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midforearm
Lateral Forearm c2788b04-8718-4fba-a5af-bf69759a88ae.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire forearm including wrist joint and elbow joint CRITERIA: humeral epicondyles must be superimposed distal radius/ulna superimposed half of radial head superimposed by coronoid process olecranon process in profile POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midforearm
AP Elbow 313ca639-97db-48f0-a4b5-495220de5a43.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: distal humerus - proximal forearm CRITERIA: slight superimposition of proximal radius/ulna humeral epicondyles in profile open joint space POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midelbow
Medial Oblique Elbow e313cca2-171b-433c-b248-70555d8608f2.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: proximal radius/ulna, distal humerus, medial epicondyle and trochlea CRITERIA: coronoid process in profile radial head and neck should superimpose the ulna olecranon process seen within olecranon fossa POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midelbow
Lateral Oblique Elbow ed3172ca-7c4e-48a6-a17c-5ca8ad96ecc1.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: open joint space, radial head, neck, tuberosity, and capitulum CRITERIA: radial head, neck, and tuberosity are free of superimposition humeral epicondyles and capitulum in profile POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midelbow
Lateral Elbow Evaluation Criteria 00c15451-6077-4ed9-9714-df0e401dc06a.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: distal humerus, proximal forearm, entire elbow joint CRITERIA: humeral epicondyles are superimposed radial tuberosity is invisible (if visible the hand is pronated) half of the radial head superimposed by coronoid process Elbow is flexed 90 degrees to see/not see fad pads 3 concentric arcs visible POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ lateral epicondyle
AP Humerus 82fade88-b825-4e09-8ff6-de93ffbdf227.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire humerus: shoulder -> elbow CRITERIA: greater tubercle in profile - hand externally rotated humeral epicondyles are parallel to IR POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midhumerus
Lateral Humerus d3fd862a-f3a2-47b5-a58b-38b6872221de.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire humerus: shoulder -> elbow CRITERIA: lesser tubercle in profile - arm internally rotated epicondyles superimposed POSITIONING: pt rotated 15-20 degrees from PA to get arm lateral and away from chest - flex elbow 90 degrees CR perpendicular @ midhumerus
AP Shoulder Neutral 262447fe-250a-4d71-be24-771d25de2397.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: proximal humerus, lateral 2/3 of clavicle, open shoulder joint CRITERIA: humeral epicondyles are 45 degrees to the IR neither tubercle should be seen on the humeral head POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ 1'' inferior to coracoid process
AP Shoulder Internal Rotation 397591e6-e132-4607-882a-f3c21f336904.jpg (image/jpg) CRITERIA: lesser tubercle in profile medially POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ 1'' inferior to coracoid process
AP Shoulder External Rotation 49625d42-9a73-423f-b1c7-71bbaf0a402c.jpg (image/jpg) CRITERIA: greater tubercle in profile laterally POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ 1'' inferior to coracoid process
Scapular Y-Lateral b4471e4f-71bd-439e-9a18-fd3671248bb8.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: humeral head resting in the 'Y' of the acromion and coracoid process CRITERIA: vertebral border and lateral border of scapula are directly superimposed humeral head is aligned with body of scapula POSITIONING: pt's unaffected arm is abducted 90 degrees, pt in 45-60 degree anterior oblique CR perpendicular @ scapulohumeral joint (neer) CR angled 10-15 degrees caudal @ scapulohumeral joint
Inferosuperior Axial Shoulder f69eae29-c821-42d4-a43b-e8beee4edc7b.gif (image/gif) ANATOMY: lateral view of the proximal humerus in relation to the glenoid fossa CRITERIA: lesser tubercle in profile medially humeral head is in the center of VOI POSITIONING: affected arm abducted 90 degrees, hand rotated externally with hand supinated CR horizontal 25-30 degrees medial to the scapulohumeral joint
Posterior Oblique Grashey e96aa05a-773a-49fb-9ca6-f56b5d842559.png (image/png) ANATOMY: glenoid cavity in profile glenohumeral joint center of VOI CRITERIA: open glenoid cavity anterior/posterior rims of glenoid cavity are superimposed POSITIONING: pt in 35-40 degree posterior oblique CR perpendicular @ glenoid cavity
AP Clavicle f9ef8dc2-c528-408a-beb0-cb8400bc2106.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire clavicle with both AC and SC joints included CRITERIA: entire clavicle and acromion are included lateral clavicle bows up, while the medial clavicle is superimposed by ribs 2-3 POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midclavicle
AP Axial Clavicle 1ff2dea2-5b67-4f2e-8bb1-bf2c17f735f4.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire clavicle and both joints included CRITERIA: clavicle is more horizontal, and projected above the scapula and ribs medial end may be superimposed by ribs POSITIONING: CR angled 15-30 degrees cephalic @ midclavicle
AC Joints 5edf0241-8f9e-4201-b82b-b4311ae35b1f.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: Bilateral AC joints included and open CRITERIA: non weight bearing and weight bearing projections marked correctly both joints included lateral clavicle almost horizontal POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ jugular notch
AP Scapula 2bced4c7-67d9-4741-aeb4-24d7fa1147cb.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire scapula midscapula center of VOI CRITERIA: lateral border seen without superimposition of thorax humerus abducted 90 degrees POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midscapula
Lateral Scapula 1233a587-333b-44c1-a848-cde7a51de5d6.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: entire scapula CRITERIA: vertebral border and lateral border directly superimposed humerus abducted to view scapular body POSITIONING: 45-60 degree oblique (to get scapula perpendicular to IR) CR perpendicular to midscapular body
RAO Sternum 790839c5-daef-4721-984f-3fd4beb7858a.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: jugular notch, SC joints, sternal body, and xiphoid process CRITERIA: sternum projected within heart shadow next to vertebral column POSITIONING: pt. rotated 15-20 degrees breathing technique CR perpendicular @ midsternum (2 fingers off downside spine)
Lateral Sternum f8f02f0b-40b8-40e4-9543-c3f73acd46b2.png (image/png) ANATOMY: manubrium, sternal body, and xiphoid in profile CRITERIA: 72'' SID reduces OID arms must be behind pt's back POSITIONING: CR perpendicular @ midsternum
AP/PA Ribs dcca6b9d-3a5b-4e18-b8ff-b7e00f164fde.jpg (image/jpg) ANATOMY: all ribs demonstrated 1-9 for upper 8-12 for lower CRITERIA: no motion/breathing POSITIONING: AP ribs when pt c/o posterior pain PA ribs when pt c/o anterior pain CR perpendicular @ T7
Oblique Ribs 61a26fc2-af19-4d49-96d4-4f7e0f40d2b4.jpg (image/jpg) CRITERIA: 45 degree oblique will shift spine away from anatomy of interest LPO/RAO = left axillary ribs RPO/LAO = right axillary ribs ribs 1-9 are seen on above diaphragm projections ribs 8-12 see on below diaphragm projections CR perpendicular @ T7
with digital, if the mAs is too high your image will appear brightness appropriate
with digital, if the IR is not exposed to enough radiation image brightness will be appropriate quantum noise will be visible
increasing tube filtration will ___ increase beam energy and decrease radiographic contrast
casts made of fiberglass require ______ in exposure factors no change
to see soft tissues with DR, the standard exposure factors should be ______ left the same because you can change window level to see tissues
Increasing SID will have what effect on your image? will be sharper
what will happen to the contrast if the atomic number of the structure is increased? contrast will increase due to increased absorption
When using the AEC, the RT must set the ____ kVp
a higher kVp on an AEC exam results in ____ shorter exposure time
When using AEC, what is the most critical aspect of performing the exam? centering the anatomy of interest over the detector
what is a grid ratio? the height of the lead strips inside the grid vs. the space between them
When you apply a grid during an exam what will happen to your contrast? employing a grid will result in higher contrast in your image because less scatter is reaching the IR
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