Culture

chloe 67
Flashcards by chloe 67, updated more than 1 year ago
chloe 67
Created by chloe 67 over 3 years ago
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A level Sociology (paper one- culture and youth) Flashcards on Culture, created by chloe 67 on 07/04/2017.
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CULTURE The common way of life of a social group. The term refers to norms, values, attitudes, expectations, and language as well as customs and rituals, statuses and roles. 
HAMAR TRIBE Has a culture rich in ceremony and ritual e.g. young people have a rite of passage into adulthood that requires boys to run across backs of cattle and girls are whipped to show their obedience.
VALUE Values are widely accepted beliefs in society that something is worthwhile and desirable. For example, in Britain we value education and therefore we have compulsory education until the age of 18. 
NORMS Norms are specific rules of behaviour that relate to specific social situations. They are based on values and govern all aspects of human behaviour. For example, in Britain we value safety so we have laws that make it the norm to wear a seatbelt etc. 
MARGARET MEAD Found that the Chambri tribe had very different gender role expectations than the Western world as the women were dominant whilst the men were submissive and raised the children. 
CUSTOMS Customs are traditional and regular norms of behaviour connected with specific social situations, which are often accompanied by specific rituals e.g. in Britain many people celebrate bonfire night by setting off fireworks
STATUS All members of society are given a social position but there are two types: ascribed and achieved
ASCRIBED STATUS Fixed at birth, by factors such as inheritance or biology e.g. women and ethnic minorities are born into low-status roles whilst those who inherit wealth often have high status (royal family, Paris Hilton).  
ACHIEVED STATUS Statuses that individuals have achieved usually through education and hard work or marriage e.g. a working-class individual working hard in school and gain status through a job (social mobility)
ROLES Society expects those of a certain status to behave in a particular way. Some roles develop through social processes e.g. a doctor, but we are born into some roles such as son, brother.
ROLE CONFLICT As individuals take on many different roles, sometimes these roles will lead to role conflict e.g. there may be times when a woman’s role as an employee conflicts with her role as a mother.
HIGH CULTURE Mainly linked to the wealthy elite and is viewed as superior and usually involves the appreciation of art, classical music, ballet etc. Which are all very expensive meaning many people can't access them. May be disappearing due to the super rich being able to access to it. 
POP CULTURE Mass culture that everyone can access as its connected with entertainment culture e.g. television, cinema, pop music etc. Produced by the media and has led to a consumer orientated, materialistic society due to advertising.
CONSUMER CULTURE A result of advertising and increased emphasis on consumption. The economy is important as shopping requires a disposable income. There is an increased importance as conspicuous consumption of designer brands to gain status.
GLOBAL CULTURE A key feature of globalisation as the world has become interconnected due to international travel, media etc. They argue that the world has become a global village and cultures are homogenised due to globalisation and spread of western values.
SUBCULTURES Smaller groups within society that have their own norms and values but also follow society's norms. Membership changes over time reflecting changes in society over time.
CULTURAL DIVERSITY The range of different cultures and subcultures within or between societies.
PAREKH OUTLINES 3 TYPES OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY: 1. when members of society have distinct ways of life but are still part of majority culture e.g. LGBTQ community. 2. Members rebel against & reject norms and values e.g. protests 3. Communal diversification when ethnic groups have long established communities e.g. China town
MULTICULTURALISM When different ethnic groups are living alongside each other in society and this promotes that all ethnic groups have the same status in society.
BARKER Considers a multicultural society as a celebrating differences between cultures e.g. through schools promoting community cohesion by teaching all faiths etc.
CULTURAL RELATIVITY The idea that every culture has its own norms, values, customs etc. meaning there are no universal truths. Values are also relative as they differ between cultures e.g. The Middle East places a greater importance on religion than Britain which is more secular.
ETHNOCENTRISM The way our own culture always appears to be the most 'normal', while other cultures may seem strange, different and even inferior in some cases.
CULTURAL HYBRIDITY When 2 or more cultures merge e.g. UK culture is influenced by cultural influences from Caribbean, Asia, Ireland etc. This has become more common through globalisation and the sharing of music and fashion.
BRASIANS Second and third generations of immigrants that have a hybrid culture/identity as they mix aspects of British and Asian culture e.g. Bhangra music and religion maybe be mixed with British culture.
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