THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY 1815-1870

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Flashcards on THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY 1815-1870, created by sarahdaniels on 05/11/2014.

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CODE NAPOLEON 1807-1815 High taxation from the demands of war Conscription into war Torture was forbade Large amount of Church land was sold
THE TREATY OF VIENNA TERMS 1815 Mainly representative of Metternich Imposed a conservative settlement Stop nationalist sentiment Oppose French influence
THE TREATY OF VIENNA IMPACTS 1815 Piedmont: Victor Emmanuel restored absolutism and abolished Code Napoleon Lombardy and Venice: dominated by Austria Papal States: Code Napoleon mostly abolished, Austrian troops stationed there Tuscany: Duke Ferdinand III improved education and allowed freedom of expression Parma: Marie Louise ruled with a replica of Code Napoleon Modena: Duke Francis IV was extremely repressive Naples: Ferdinand I scraped liberal projects and restored Church power
THE FIRST REVOLUTIONS 1820-1821 Naples: Carbonari members forced Ferdinand to agree to a constitution Sicily: Palermo workers demanded a constitution Piedmont: Carbonari members demanded a constitutional monarchy and set up a provisional government under Charles Albert ALL REVOLUTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS WERE CRUSHED BY AUSTRIA UNDER THE TROPPAU DOCTRINE OF OCTOBER 1820
THE SECOND REVOLUTIONS 1831 Modena: Enrico Misley started a revolution Papal States: revolutionaries wanted 'revolutionary liberalism' and Colonel Giuseppe led a revolution where a provisional government was set up ALL REVOLUTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS WERE CRUSHED BY AUSTRIA UNDER THE TROPPAU DOCTRINE OF OCTOBER 1820
YOUNG ITALY 1831 A belief in democracy An independent nation of 'free men and equals' Inclusion of the South in union Republicanism
INTELLECTUALS 1840s Gioberti: wanted a federation under the Pope (Neo-Guelph) but without revolution Balbo: wanted a federation under Piedmont with European diplomacy not revolution D'Azeglio: wanted unification under Piedmont to be achieved through public/European opinion without revolution Mazzini: wanted a republic under Piedmont with revolution ALL INTELLECTUALS WANTED AUSTRIAN EXPULSION
THE THIRD REVOLUTIONS 1848-1849 Sicily: miserableness provoked a revolution in Palermo and set up a provisional government which was later crushed by King Bomba Naples: Ferdinand agreed to a constitution because Austria couldn't help him as Pope Pius didn't allow the troops to cross the Papal States Lombardy: boycotted tobacco and Metternich reigned so the 'Five Days of Milan' was provoked, afterwards the provisional government asked Charles Albert for help Venice: Daniel Manin's supporters begged for his release, after so a Venetian Republic was declared and asked Charles Albert for help Tuscany: Duke Leopold granted a more democratic government and fled as the atmosphere was too radical (he returned after Piedmont's defeat at Novara)
POPE PIUS IX 1846-1848 Ended Church censorship of the press Created a civic guard Set up a Council of State - The Consulta APRIL 1848 ALLOCUTION: Pius refused to bless the War with Austria and dismissed the idea of himself leading an Italian federation
WAR WITH AUSTRIA 1848 Piedmont declared war on Austria (he feared revolution spreading to Piedmont, French intervention and saw opportunity with Metternich resignation) Piedmont won a couple of battles Radetzky pressed for further conflict Piedmont were defeated at Custozza and Novara Charles Albert then abdicated
THE ROMAN REPUBLIC 1848-1849 Pius fled Rome and Giuseppe Galletti exercised a revolutionary government The macinato was abolished Public works were programmed A Constituent Assembly, Costituente, was founded The Costitente declared a triumvirate including Mazzini to govern Rome Pius called on Spain, France and Naples to crush the republic Napoleon III sent 20,000 to Rome to crush the republic as he wanted to please French-Catholics
PIEDMONTESE DEVELOPMENT 1850s The Statuto promised tax reform, free press and individual liberty The Siccadi Laws limited Church power; seeking sanctuary and separate laws for religious figures were abolished and the ability for religious groups to buy land was restricted Free Trade meant Piedmont engaged in trade with Portugal, France, Britain and Belgium Developments in Piedmont included railways, the textile industry and foreign capital
THE CRIMEAN WAR 1854 Britain and France declared war with Russia Austria tried to remain neutral but signed the Four Points Agreement and joined Britain and France It was beneficial for Piedmont that Austria had gained Russia as an enemy French and British troops were struck by cholera and asked Piedmont to join the war Victor Emmanuel II forced Cavour to send 15,000 troops to the Crimea Russia sued for peace
THE CONGRESS OF PARIS 1856 Piedmont attended the Congress of Paris The 'Italian Question' was a topic of discussion France and Britain were not prepared to alienate Austria for Piedmont France and Britain were grateful for Piedmont's help
FRENCH INTENTIONS 1850s Cavour wanted French aid to expel Austria Napoleon sought to expand France through his demands for Nice and Savoy France would have a level of influence in Italy A federation under the Pope was still possible Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon and then appealed to him from jail to support Italian unity
PLOMBIERES 1858 A secret meeting between Piedmont and France France would give 200,000 troops Italy was to be divided as The Kingdom of Upper Italy, The Kingdom of Central Italy, Rome and The Kingdom of Naples France would gain Nice and Savoy Victor Emmanuel II's daughter would marry Prince Jerome Bonaparte
WAR WITH AUSTRIA 1859 France only sent about 100,000 troops Piedmont had about 60,000 troops Europe did not back the war, to them, French dominance in Italy was as equally undesirable as Austria dominance Piedmont had two significant victories at Magenta and Solferino Napoleon sued for peace with Austria
VILLAFRANCA 1859 Napoleon feared French Catholic opinion and the victory of the National Society would probably overthrow the papacy A Prussian army had started to gather near the Rhine Austria gave France Lombardy Piedmont was not to be given control of the Central Duchies A confederation under the Pope was to be set up
THE TREATY OF TURIN 1860 A deal between Napoleon and Cavour Piedmont would give France Savoy and Nice France would give Piedmont Lombardy Piedmont would annex the Central Duchies through plebiscites
PLEBISCITES 1860 Males over 21 could vote for either annexation to the constitutional monarchy of Victor Emmanuel II or a 'separate kingdom' The votes were overwhelming towards annexation, presumable fixed through intimidation
GARIBALDI'S THOUSAND 1860 Garibaldi was to 'liberate Italy in the name of Victor Emmanuel II' He landed in Sicily in May 1860 He landed in the mainland in August 1860 Garibaldi defeated the Neapolitan army at Volturno in October 1860
MORE PLEBISCITES 1860 The question of 'One Italy, Victor Emmanuel: yes or no?' Overwhelming results for 'yes' Presumably fixed again through intimidation
FOREIGN REACTION TO UNITY 1860 Austria: reinforced troops in Venice Russia: broke off diplomatic relations with Piedmont France: expressed worry over the papacy being threatened Britain: keen to deter European intervention of disrupting the unification process
POST-UNIFICATION DIFFICULTIES 1861-1870 The North South divide If Italy should be a federal or unitary state A weak government Economic integration of all states Divisions between the Church and the new state The issues with Rome and Venice
THE BRIGANDS WAR 1861-1865 The Brigands War was in response to the poor South not being able to meet the new tax instated by Piedmont Southern Civil liberties were repressed by Piedmontese troops (about 120,000)
THE CONSTITUTION 1861 After Cavour's La Destra Party won the elections, a new constitution was adopted: Victor Emmanuel was to be VE II, not VE I The King was to be the sovereign body Administrative structure was centralised Piedmontese taxes, weights and measures and free trade laws were imposed on the rest of Italy
WEAK GOVERNMENT 1862 Cavour's successor was Baron Ricasoli, who was succeeded by Urbano Rattazzi Neither objected Garibaldi Garibaldi set up the Society of the Emancipation of Italy and rallied the Sicilians and set for the mainland Rattazzi was worried he would alienate the French and so blocked Garibaldi, whose army surrendered Rattazzi was then sacked
BISMARCK, PRUSSIA AND VENICE 1862 Prussia excluded Austria from trade agreements which ultimately led to Austrian decline A Prussian-Italian alliance in 1866 entitled Italy to Venice if war was to happen in the next 3 months A French-Austrian agreement in 1866 entitled France to Venice for neutrality in the next war The Austrians were crushed by Prussia, Venice was given to France and then to Italy
BISMARCK, PRUSSIA AND ROME 1870 Prussia started war with France and so the French troops moved out of Rome to fight Giovanni Lanza's government seized Rome and it was declared the capital of Italy
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