Indian Wars

Emily Ball
Flashcards by Emily Ball, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily Ball
Created by Emily Ball over 3 years ago
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GCSE History (American West) Flashcards on Indian Wars, created by Emily Ball on 04/28/2017.

Resource summary

Question Answer
1861-1862 LITTLE CROW'S WAR 1861 - Crops failed in the reservation. 1862 - Money from the the government didn't arrive, credit at store was stopped. 1862 - Young Santee Sioux killed 20 from the Indian Bureau, 45 soldiers (kept 10 hostage) and 700 settlers. 1862 - Little Crow failed to capture Fort Ridgeley.
What were the results of Little Crow's War? The Santee Sioux were forced onto Crow Creek Reservation in 1863. The land was barren, food was scarce, and the water was undrinkable. Almost 400 died in the 1st winter. Some Sioux escaped with Little Crow.
1866-1868 RED CLOUD'S WAR 1862 - Gold was found in the Rocky Mountains; the path to get there crossed Sioux land. 1866 - The Sioux attacked the army when they built forts despite talking of peace with Red Cloud. 1868 - The war ended.
What were the results of Red Cloud's War? The government changed it's policy, withdrew from the forts and replaced the Bozeman Trail. The Great Sioux Reservation was set up and gave the Sioux land. Red Cloud lost power as a chief - many Indians wanted to follow more militant chiefs.
1876-1877 THE GREAT SIOUX WAR (The Battle of Little Bighorn) 1874 - Custer found gold in the Black Hills (Sioux holy land). 1875 - Over 1000 miners broke a peace treaty with the Sioux by mining at the Black Hills. 1875 - The Sioux refused to sell the Black Hills for $6 million and refused to live on reservations - treated as hostile by army.
1876-1877 THE GREAT SIOUX WAR (The Battle of Little Bighorn) 1876 - Sitting Bull has a vision of white men falling into a trap. Oglala Sioux, Santee Sioux and Cheyenne set up a camp at the Little Bighorn river. Crazy Horse force Crook and his men to retreat at Rosebud River and joins the camp. 7000 Indians were at the camp. 1876 - Battle of Little Bighorn.
What were the results of the Great Sioux War? The exterminators gained favour and peace with the Indians was no longer an option. The army took charge of Indian Affairs. Indians were attacked and forced onto reservations. 1877 - Crazy Horse and his followers surrendered, and entered a reservation.
Describe the Battle of the Little Bighorn Custer saw the camp and thought the men were away (they were sleeping); he sent Reno with 125 men to attack the Southern end and Benteen with 125 men to the South. Custer went North. Reno was stopped by Sioux warriors and retreated to a defensive position - Benteen and his men went to assist.
Describe the Battle of the Little Bighorn (continued) Reno and Benteen didn't go to help Custer when asked. Unsure what happened to Custer - he tried and failed to cross the river and turned back but was overwhelmed by 2500 warriors. One Crow scout survived and 200+ from the cavalry were killed.
What was the US Army plan for the Battle of the Little Bighorn? Crook led 1049 men from Fort Fetterman. Gibbon led 450 men from Fort Shaw. Terry and Custer led 1000 men from Fort Abraham Lincoln. They would wait for the others before attacking the Indians.
How did Custer's actions lead to the defeat of the US Army at the Battle of the Little Bighorn? Custer refused 180 extra men and Gatling guns. Custer disobeyed orders - he rode across the Wolf Mountains instead of circling them - he arrived at the river a day early but his men/horses were exhausted.
What were the other reasons for the US Army's defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn? The 3 columns of attack couldn't communicate once they'd left the forts. The US Army hadn't found out about how many Indians were at the camp - they estimated 800 warriors. Crook's column had to retreat.
How did the actions of the Sioux and the other Indians lead to the defeat of the US Army at the Battle of the Little Bighorn? They had better weapons - the cavalrymen had Springfield 6 shot rifles but the Sioux had Winchester repeating rifles. The Indians stood and fought (not their usual battle tactic of a delaying action). This was due to Crazy Horse.
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