British Reforms

jacksearle
Mind Map by jacksearle, updated more than 1 year ago
jacksearle
Created by jacksearle over 6 years ago
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A-Levels India History Mind Map on British Reforms, created by jacksearle on 05/22/2013.
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British Reforms
1 Morley Minto reforms 1909
1.1 Why?
1.1.1 British had new labour govt - open to reforms
1.1.2 Key reason - knew that partition of Bengal angered people
1.1.2.1 Scared of Rebellion - wanted to keep people happy
1.2 People
1.2.1 Morley - SoSI
1.2.2 Minto - Viceroy
1.3 What it did
1.3.1 Made changes to legis councils - suggest laws to Viceroy
1.3.2 Total Indians 135 up from 39 in 1892 Indian Councils Act
1.3.3 60 Indian reps on viceroys council - 27 from select groups
1.3.4 Provincial councils expanded
1.3.5 Separate electorates, Muslim ensured voice
1.3.6 Reserved seats for Muslims
1.4 Congress Unhappy
1.4.1 See as Divide + Rule - believed Muslims should be part of united India
1.5 Muslims happy
1.5.1 Guaranteed a say
1.6 Limited impact
1.6.1 168 resolutions suggested - 24 went through - little change
1.7 Success
1.7.1 Indians involved in policy for first time
2 1915 Defence of India Act
2.1 War time act - Measures:
2.1.1 curfews
2.1.2 no right to trial
2.1.3 Anti British groups banned
2.1.4 Censorship
2.1.5 Rationing
2.2 Seen as fair - in war there needed to be change
3 1919 Rowlatt Acts
3.1 Wartime Controls after war
3.1.1 No political meetings
3.1.2 Censorship of media
3.1.3 Curfews/travel restrictions
3.1.4 Imprisonment without trial
3.1.5 Arrest without trial
3.2 Indians very angry
3.2.1 Fought for UK in WW1 - expected more rights and rewards
3.3 Amritsar Massacre
3.3.1 Dyer open fires on public meeting in Jallianwala Bagh
3.3.1.1 379 dead, 1200 wounded
3.3.1.1.1 Imposed martial law after - flogging etc
3.3.1.1.1.1 Hunter Inquiry - Dyer censured - Indians see as huge injustice
3.3.1.1.1.1.1 Britain no longer have moral high ground
4 Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms 1919
4.1 Passed December 1919 - Put into practice 1921
4.2 3 major changes
4.2.1 1. Self govt in future
4.2.1.1 Confirmed promise of eventual self govt
4.2.1.1.1 Promised review in 10 years time where independence decision may be made
4.2.2 Changes to Council/Electorate
4.2.2.1 Elected Indian members now in majority on legis councils
4.2.2.1.1 Exec council increased to 6 - 3 appointed Indians
4.2.2.1.1.1 Provincial councils expanded again
4.2.2.1.1.1.1 Franchise increased 5 million can vote on provinical govts
4.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 Principle of separate electorates firmly embedded
4.2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Reserved elections of Muslims, Sikhs and Christians by own electorate
4.2.3 Dyarchy
4.2.3.1 Transferred
4.2.3.1.1 Local self govt
4.2.3.1.1.1 Education
4.2.3.1.1.1.1 Health
4.2.3.1.1.1.1.1 Agriculture
4.2.3.2 Reserved
4.2.3.2.1 Foreign Affairs
4.2.3.2.1.1 Finances
4.2.3.2.1.1.1 Law and Justice
4.2.3.2.1.1.1.1 Police
4.2.4 Reaction
4.2.4.1 saw temporary end to violence
4.2.4.1.1 Indian nationalists gave lukewarm reaction - saw it as complex and confusing
4.2.4.1.1.1 Act didn't seem worth years of anticipation
4.2.4.1.1.1.1 No point rejecting opportunities given
4.2.4.1.1.1.1.1 readiness to demand more
4.2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 National movement about to be transformed by Gandhi
5 Govt of India Act 1935
5.1 3 main principles
5.1.1 Eventual federation at national level
5.1.2 Provincial autonomy
5.1.3 Safeguard for central govt
5.2 most complicated legislation ever, 450 clauses
5.3 Provisions
5.3.1 Expand electorate to 35 mil
5.3.1.1 Abolish dyarchy - reserved powers given to provincial govts
5.3.1.1.1 Create full provinical govts - exec and legis
5.3.1.1.1.1 Viceroy keeps power of defence and foreign affairs
5.3.1.1.1.1.1 Section 93
5.4 Reaction
5.4.1 Left/right wing unhappy, too little/too much
5.4.2 Many Indians believed it to be too little too late - demands has changed
5.4.3 Congress split on reaction
5.4.3.1 Some rejected on priniciple
5.4.3.2 Some wanted to grasp short term gains
5.5 Federation failed
5.5.1 Princes did not want to lose personal power
5.5.1.1 Gave up at start of WWII
6 Partition of Bengal 1905
6.1 Aim - Make British admin more efficient and respected
6.2 why partition?
6.2.1 streamlines admin
6.2.2 Bengal vlnerable to floods etc
6.2.3 Block the success of congress - make a muslim majority state
6.3 3 tier reaction
6.3.1 very moderate
6.3.1.1 Letter and meetings
6.3.2 moderate
6.3.2.1 Marches and boycotts
6.3.3 extremist
6.3.3.1 violence
6.3.3.1.1 Bombings + shootings
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