Wolsey

Description

AS level History Mind Map on Wolsey, created by Poppy B on 11/12/2017.
Poppy B
Mind Map by Poppy B, updated more than 1 year ago
Poppy B
Created by Poppy B over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Wolsey
  1. UPBRINGING
    1. Son of a butcher
      1. Went to Magdalen College, Oxford
        1. Career in church
      2. JOBS
        1. 1509 - Almoner to Henry (distributed money to poor) + member of King's council (under Patronage of Richard Fox)
          1. 1512-14 Helped co-ordinate war effort in France - pleased the king with admin skills
            1. 1514 - Archbishop of York
              1. 1515 - Pope made him cardinal + became Lord Chancellor of England (in charge of judicial system)
                1. 1518 - Legate a latere (representative of pope, given full powers to act on his behalf)
                  1. 1525 - Relationship with King declining
                    1. 1529 - Accused of praemunire (suspected of appealing to foreign powers) and banished from court.
                    2. SUCCESSES
                      1. Organisational abilities
                        1. Allowed Henry to afford foreign war and then place international peacemaker
                        2. Subsidy
                          1. Allowed King to collect more money from subjects
                          2. Attempts of legal, social and economic reform
                            1. Improve admin of justice by prosecuting Star Chamber local officials who were corrupt
                              1. E.g 1519 - Prosecuted a prominent member of the Cheshire gentry, Sir John Savage - using local influence to rid his son of murder charges
                                1. Pardoned, but lost many local offices and fined 4,000 marks to the Crown
                                2. Teach "New law of Star Chamber"
                                3. Used the Star Chamber to encourage ordinary men to voice their grievances
                                  1. Led to huge increase in workload
                                  2. 1517-18 - launched a national enquiry to investigate illegal enclosure by landlords
                                    1. 264 landlord prosecuted / 188 verdicts reached
                                  3. Foreign Policy
                                    1. Treaty of London
                                      1. Treaty of London in 1518 was a non-aggression pact between the major European nations.
                                        1. The signatories were Burgundy, France, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Papal States and Spain, all of whom agreed not to attack one another and to come to the aid of any that were under attack.
                                      2. The Field of the Cloth of Gold
                                        1. site in Balinghem – between Ardres in France and Guînes in the then-English Pale of Calais – that hosted a summit from 7 to 24 June 1520, between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France.
                                          1. arranged to increase the bond of friendship between the two kings following the Anglo-French treaty of 1514.
                                            1. These two monarchs would meet again in 1532 to arrange Francis's assistance in pressuring Pope Clement VII to pronounce Henry's first marriage as illegitimate.
                                    2. FAILURES
                                      1. Held multiple church offices
                                        1. Archbishop of York, Bishop of Lincoln and Tournai
                                        2. Large profits = Grand style
                                          1. Household numbered 500 men (nearly as much as king's)
                                            1. His building at Hampton Court so magnificent = 'Alter rex'
                                            2. Schemes too ambitious
                                              1. Star Chamber reform led to backlog which he couldn't clear (war and diplomacy)
                                              2. Used power and position for personal feuds
                                                1. Sir Robert Sheffield (speaker in House of Commons) had been critical of him - W had him sent to the Tower and fined £5,333 for 'opprobrious words'
                                                  1. Upset support of nobility and gentry
                                                    1. 1523 - had to reverse his policy of enclosure as part of a deal with parliament (represented the interests of landed elites)
                                                  2. Mismanaged financial crisis of 1522-23, haranguing parliament in an attempt to get more tax - turned this into the non-parliamentary Amicable Grant
                                                  3. RELATIONSHIP WITH HENRY VIII
                                                    1. Didn't usurp power from Henry, only allowed to have it as long as he was useful
                                                      1. Modern critics use his social background to accuse him of undermining the power of trad nobility e.g Duke of Buckingham, because he resented them
                                                        1. Buckingham executed - appeared to be plotting treason and raising a private army
                                                          1. Henry said "Make good watch .. on the Duke of Buckingham.. and others which you might suspect"
                                                        2. Had rivals for his power, particularly from the members of Privy Chamber
                                                          1. 1519 - W expelled the 'minions' from the household (too much influence)
                                                            1. 1526 - Eltham Ordinances control Chamber as rival source of power
                                                            2. From 1527 - W unable to give Henry his divorce that his position came under threat
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